This article describes in detail the management of land, water, material and technical resources and their efficient use in agriculture.
One of the foundations of the agricultural economy is natural resources. The most essential elements of natural resources are land. Land is the main factor of agricultural production, the object of labor as an object of labor-oriented, as well as the location of various products, housing for humans and tools for the survival of flora and fauna. Every people and nation recognizes the land as its main asset, combining several conditions and factors to describe the advantages of agriculture through land.
Land resources are the sum of the land surface, which includes other natural objects. These are: forests, plants and other living organisms, water bodies. Water resources of land resources include lakes, ponds and ponds, canals. Oceans, seas and rivers are part of water resources. The land and water resources of each state are the source of life in nature and society, and land and water require each other to exist. The importance of land in society is immeasurable. It will house buildings for citizens and grow various products. This means that land plays an important role in agricultural production. Because it is the sleeve’s main means of production in this industry.
A variety of products are grown as a result of sowing seeds and seedlings and cultivating them. This means that all types of products grown in the network are obtained using land and water. According to the British economist William Petty, "the earth is the mother of wealth ..."
The republic's agriculture is based on irrigation. Therefore, water is as much a necessary tool as soil. Most agricultural products, such as cotton, rice, tobacco, vegetables, melons, corn, wheat, barley, and fodder, are grown on irrigated land. About 95% of the gross agricultural output comes from irrigated lands. Land and water play an important role in meeting industry's demand for agricultural raw materials and the population's demand for food. The more rational and efficient use of land and water, the greater the volume of products, the higher the level of satisfaction of the above requirements. However, when using land as a primary tool, it is advisable to take into account the following features:
Limited land area and non-reproduction. Mother Earth is limited by nature, its area cannot be expanded by man. Because it is a product of nature. Other fixed assets, such as tractors, machines, can be manufactured as desired to meet demand;
That the earth is a product of nature. The earth is a product of nature. Therefore, its future depends on nature. Other fixed assets, such as buildings, structures, combines, and tractors, are the product of human labor. They can be produced by humans when needed. The earth cannot be produced by man;
Land is a perpetual means of agricultural production. The lands existing in the territory of the Republic have been used by our predecessors in the cultivation of agricultural products, we are using them now, and our descendants will use them in the future;
The ability to move land from one place to another for the purpose of growing agricultural products is limited. It can be used wisely in its location, ie in a stationary state. But it is possible to take machines and tractors to the required place, to carry out various works, to build buildings and structures in the required place;
The presence of soil fertility, which is the top layer of the soil, its increase as a result of scientifically based cultivation. In fact, if the soil is tilled and fertilized in time, its fertility can increase. But other fixed assets are physically degraded as a result of their involvement in the production process. Over time, they also become obsolete as a result of advances in science and technology.
However, if the land is taken care of and used wisely and efficiently with the introduction of scientific and technological advances, its productivity can increase. But this does not mean that its productivity is not limited. Therefore, it is advisable to use the fertility of the land for entrepreneurship.
In agriculture, soil fertility, which is the top layer of land, is of great importance. There are the following types of soil fertility in life: natural, artificial and economic fertility. The natural fertility of the soil is a product of nature. It is formed over many years as a result of the influence of nature. Its condition depends on the amount of sunlight and precipitation, the effects of wind and water. In their positive effect, the natural fertility of the soil is good. Artificial and economic productivity can be formed and increased as a result of human labor. In particular, it is possible to increase the economic fertility of the soil by spending labor, money, improving the irrigation and reclamation of lands, sowing and fertilizing them, and good quality tillage. The quality of water used in agriculture is not the same in all regions and differs from each other.
For example, in most areas of Andijan, Namangan and Ferghana oblasts, the quality of water used for irrigation is good, ie they contain a variety of minerals that negatively affect productivity, but in the Republic of Karakalpakstan, Khorezm region, the water used contains chlorine. and many other substances. That is why their quality is extremely poor. This has a negative impact on the volume and quality of agricultural production. In the future, it is possible to increase the volume, quantity and improve the quality of agricultural products through the effective implementation of all measures aimed at improving land fertility and improving water quality.
Land resources, like other resources, have their own characteristics. First of all, the earth is a product of nature, a gift that cannot be created by human labor. Man can only improve the condition of the earth, or make it worse at all, by directing his labor to the earth. However, man cannot create land resources of his own free will. Second, land is a limited natural resource. Man cannot increase or decrease the earth as much as he wants. Therefore, the main goal is to use the land efficiently and properly. In a country, the amount of land is determined by its boundaries, while in general, the amount of land is determined by the land surface.
Land resources are a complex complex from a physical point of view. This complex is characterized by a combination of various factors (chemical, physical, biological). Land resources consist of different plots of land, which differ from each other by soil type, topography, quantity and other characteristics.
Third, the earth is an eternal means of production. Also, land does not always lose its place as a key factor in production. It can be used to increase funding, efficient and effective use of agricultural land through modern production technologies, as well as for industrial and housing construction. At the same time, despite the fact that technical progress has reached new heights, the land can not be replaced by other factors of production.
In accordance with the Land Code of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the land fund is divided into the following categories according to the main purpose of land use:
a. Agricultural land - land allocated for agricultural purposes or intended for this purpose. Agricultural lands are divided into irrigated and non-irrigated (arable) lands, arable lands, hayfields, pastures, perennial fruit trees and vineyards;
b. Lands of settlements (cities, settlements and rural settlements) - lands within the boundaries of cities and settlements, as well as rural settlements;
c. Land for industrial, transport, communications, defense and other purposes - land allocated to legal entities for use for these purposes;
d. Lands intended for nature protection, health, recreation purposes - lands occupied by specially protected natural areas, which have natural healing factors, as well as lands used for public recreation and tourism;
e. Lands of historical and cultural significance - lands where historical and cultural monuments are located;
f. Forest Fund lands — lands covered with forest, as well as lands allocated for forestry needs, even if not covered by forest;
g. Lands of water fund - lands occupied by water bodies, water economy constructions and lands in the zone allocated along the banks of water bodies;
h. Spare places. Each agricultural enterprise has a certain area of ??land and is engaged in the cultivation of agricultural products in accordance with the existing demand and supply. The total land area of ??the enterprise is not the same in terms of natural conditions and the nature of its use on the farm. In addition, not all parts of the enterprise are used for agricultural production. Therefore, agricultural lands are allocated from the total land area of ??the enterprise.
The stratification of land according to its natural quality and economic use is of great economic importance in the current conditions of a market economy. Because according to these characteristics, the scope and level of issues such as land tax, rent, land price are determined. It is impossible to create a land cadastre without it. Agricultural lands are lands that are directly related to agriculture and are chronically used for the cultivation of agricultural products. Agricultural lands are arable lands, ie lands where cereals and other crops are always planted, orchards, ie lands where perennial fruit trees are always planted, pastures are pastures where livestock are constantly grazed, hayfields are always hayfields.
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