Efficient heat transfer has become major need these days. In this thesis, both experimental and CFD investigations have to be carried out to evaluate the cooling performance of a mini-channel consisting of fins on upper surface of flat plate. Nano fluids contain a small fraction of solid nano particles in base fluids flowing through groves in bottom plate attached with heater at base. Nano fluids cools small channel heat sinks, have been anticipated to be an excellent heat dissipation method for the next generation electronic devices. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations is to be carried out to study the heat sinks heat transfer mechanism. The sectional geometry of channels affects the flow and heat transfer characteristics of mini channel heat sinks. The heat transfer principle states that maximum heat transfer is achieved in mini channels with minimum pressure drop across it. In this research work the experimental and numerical investigation for the improved heat transfer characteristics of mini channel heat sink using Al2O3/water nano with (1 and 2 % volume fraction) fluid is to be done. The fluid flow characteristics are also analysed for the serpentine shaped mini channel. Heating element of 130 W capacities is to be used to heat up the heating element of base plate.
With the advances in computing technology over the past few decades, electronics have become faster, smaller and more powerful. This results in an ever-increasing heat generation rate from electronic devices. In most cases, the chips are cooled using forced air flow. However, when dealing with a component that contains billions of transistors working at high frequency, the temperature can reach a critical level where standard cooling methods are not sufficient.
The application of micro channels in heat transfer was first proposed by Tuckerman in the electronic chip which could be effectively cooled by means of water flow in micro channels fabricated on the circuit board on which the chips are mounted. The need for thermal management in high end power electronic workstations cooling, application servers and data centres are an exceedingly demanding area that requires continuous research efforts to develop efficient and cost competitive cooling solutions.
II. AIM &OBJECTIVES
B. Heat Sink Calculation
In present research heat sink with base plate having groves are performed and top plate contain pin fin rectangular arrangement.
In pin fin to calculate the number of fins required for efficient heat dissipation on top plate it is calculated by heat sink calculator in which required parameter are filled namely length, with, heating temperature to calculate number of fins.
So, approximately for convenience 11 fin are selected.
IV. LITERATURE REVIEW
Valentin Apostol et al. , this research paper presents study of the effect of Nano fluids on the micro channel heat sink performance of computer cooling systems. In this experiment CeO2, Al2O3 and ZrO2 nanoparticles suspended in 20% ethylene glycol and 80% distilled water are used as working fluids. The concentration of the nanoparticles ranges from 0.5% to 2%, mass flow rate ranges from 0.028 kg/s to 0.084 kg/s, and the ambient temperature ranges from 25 C to 40 C. Author experimental investigate the thermal component, parameters such as thermo-physical properties of the Nano fluids and base fluids, central processing unit (CPU) temperature, heat transfer coefficient, pressure drop, and pumping power.
Tu-Chieh Hung et al. , in this paper numerical study is done for improve the heat transfer in a 3-D micro channel heat sink (MCHS) by using Nano fluids. Thermo-physical properties of coolant fluid are changes by addition of nanoparticles in it. These Thermo-physical properties are closely related to the type of nanoparticle, base fluid, particle volume fraction, particle size, and pumping power.
Hao Li et al. , Researchers discuss about the topology optimization. They study the relationship between the thermal hydraulic performances and the layout of cooling channels designed by topology optimization from the engineering perspective. Here they discuss about two type of topology optimization.
1) In present experiment water has been used in existing condition to study its physical properties to enhance heat transfer parameters.
2) Heat sink has been designed to study cooling performance of component with heating element placed below bottom plate.
3) In present stage water as coolant medium is studied to determine pressure, temperature and heat transfer coefficient contour plot.
4) It is observed that using alumina as nanofluid with 1 and 2 % volume fraction temperature as well as pressure drop have been reduced along with increase in heat dissipation heat transfer coefficient is observed.
5) Experimental testing has been concluded that water containing nanofluid have been more effective with more heat absorbing characteristics and less heated surface of fin of heat sink with specified temperature applied by heater.
 Tu-Chieh Hung, Wei-Mon Yan, Xiao-Dong Wang, Chun-Yen Chang, “Heat transfer enhancement in microchannel heat sinks using nanofluids”, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 55 (2012) 2559–2570.
 Altayyeb Alfaryjat, Lucian Miron, Horatiu Pop, Valentin Apostol, Mariana-Florentina Stefanescu and Alexandru Dobrovicescu, “Experimental Investigation of Thermal and Pressure Performance in Computer Cooling Systems Using Di_erent Types of Nanofluids”, nanomaterials 29 August 2019.
 Hao Li, Xiaohong Ding, Dalei Jing, Min Xiong, Fanzhen Meng, “Experimental and numerical investigation of liquid-cooled heat sinks designed by topology optimization”, International Journal of Thermal Sciences 146 (2019) 106065.
 Amin Jafarimoghaddam, Sadegh Aberoumand, “A Comparison between heat transfer performance of rectangular and semicircular tubes considering boundary effects on Brownian motions in the presence of Ag / water nanofluids: Applicable in the design of cooling system of photovoltaic cells”, Xiao-Dong Wang, North China Electric Power University, CHINA July 28, 2017.
 Ali Ijam, R. Saidur, P. Ganesan, “Cooling of minichannel heat sink using nanofluids”, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 39 (2012) 1188–1194.
 Ghasemi, Seyed Ebrahim; Ranjbar, Ali Akbar, Hosseini, Seiyed Mohammad Javad, “Cooling Performance Analysis of Water-Cooled Heat Sinks with Circular and Rectangular Minichannels Using Finite Volume Method”, Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. Research Article Vol. 37, No. 2, 2018
 Mr. A. Sivakumar, Dr. N. Alagumurthi and Dr. T. Senthilvelan, “Effect of CuO/ Water Nanofluid Heat Transfer IN Serpentine Shaped Microchannel Heat Sink”, International Journal of Mechanics and Thermodynamics. ISSN 2278-361X Volume 5, Number 1 (2014), pp. 1-12
 Ravindra Kumar, Mohd. Islam, M.M. Hasan, “Nano fluids as Heat Transfer Enhancers in Microchannels - A Review”, Journal of Basic and Applied Engineering Research Print ISSN: 2350-0077; Online ISSN: 2350-0255; Volume 1, Number 2; October, 2014 pp. 65-68
 Lakshmi Sirisha Maganti, Purbarun Dhar, T. Sundararajan, and Sarit K. Das, “Particle and thermo-hydraulic maldistribution of nanofluids in parallel microchannel systems”, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras Chennai – 600036,