Authors: Dr. Shri Pal, Ravinder Kumar, Lalit Sharma
Certificate: View Certificate
Indiscriminate use of synthetic chemical fertilizers over past few decades in India and other countries of the world, has become a cause of great concern to maintain long term soil fertility, the soil environment, and its components. The soil microbial community plays a major and important role in fostering soil health and plant growth. While the use of synthetic chemical fertilizers has a profound impact on plant growth, it significantly alters the structure of the microbial community towards a detrimental degradation. Sustainable farming practices help in reducing the depletion of natural resources and maintain both productivity and soil fertility. The use of natural minerals that contain fertilizer nutrients in their native state is a very promising approach to reducing emissions associated with the manufacturing industries. Organic material from natural sources (biodegradable agricultural waste, food waste, Cow Dung, Gomutra (Cow Urine), etc.) and the waste obtained from saturated filters of Bunkerman CO2/TVOC Removal Systems, acts as a source of microbial culture and encourages the release of nutrients into the soil during mineral weathering. The combination of nutrient based minerals and their biological weathering agents together with organic matter, has the potential to remediate, restore, and sustain depleted agricultural soils. In the present invention, four types of \"Minerals Rich Organic Manures (MROM-1 to MROM-4)\" have been manufactured by making use of the waste obtained from saturated filters of Bunkerman CO2/TVOC Removal Systems, the biodegradable agricultural waste, Cow Dung, Gomutra (Cow Urine) and other important minerals like Rock Phosphate, Zeolite, Bentonite, Gypsum, Kaolin, Carbon, Silica etc, available in nature. The emphasis has been on the significance of sustaining agricultural productivity and microbial diversity in the rhizosphere, the region of soil in the vicinity of plant roots in which the chemistry and microbiology is influenced by their growth, respiration, and nutrient exchange.
It is a well-known fact that normal atmospheric air generally contains 79.03% Nitrogen, 20.94% Oxygen and 0.03% Carbon dioxide by volume. Nitrogen is not absorbed by lungs. Exhaled air contains an average of 4.38% Carbon dioxide [1,2,3]. It is a well known fact that the carbondioxide (CO2) level in the atmospheric air was naturally maintained around 280 ppm over the past many centuries till about 1776 or a little later until beginning of the Industrial Era. However, due to industrial revolution, the CO2 level has started increasing exponentially over the past few decades and it has already reached a world average of about 420 ppm. If it is not controlled by innovative solutions, it is likely to cross a figure of about 520 ppm by the year 2050.
To overcome the above problem of CO2 increase, Bunkerman in India, has recently invented an indigenous technology for which the patent has been filed vide Docket No 128656 dated 17 Nov 2022 with Controller General of Patents, Designs & Trade Marks, India [1,2]. It is observed that when the CO2, TVOC and other pollutants are absorbed/adsorbed in the filter material of Bunkerman a reasonably high value minerals and compounds are generated inside the saturated filters[1,2]. On saturation the filters may be replaced by the new filters and the saturated material of old filters can be utilised as a raw material to obtain "Minerals Rich Organic Manure (MROM)" by mixing and reacting it with other organic materials and compounds such as biodegradable agricultural waste, Cow Dung, Gomutra (Cow Urine), Rock Phosphate, Zeolite, Bentonite, Gypsum, Kaolin, Carbon, Silica etc.
Minerals are also an important component of the soil; they are the skeleton of the soil and the source of mineral elements. Minerals play an important role in the improvement of soil’s physical and chemical properties and the growth and metabolism of microorganisms [5 to 8]. However, the beneficial effects of the use of appropriate minerals in the soil have long been neglected. In addition, our research has found that forms of mineral weathering, such as silicate weathering, are often accompanied by the formation of secondary carbonate minerals in the process of biological weathering, which undoubtedly increases the potential of cultivated soil carbon sinks.
Further studies have shown that secondary minerals formed with mineral weathering have a good remediation effect on heavy metal pollution[9,10]. In addition to the formation of secondary minerals, the cations released by mineral weathering can also combine with the soil’s organic complexes through co-precipitation, which in turn mediates the formation of soil aggregates, preserving soil organic carbon, thereby reducing the potential of soil carbon depletion. Therefore, "Minerals Rich Organic Manure (MROM)" has a positive impact on agriculture, soil health and the ecological environment. It provides a new vision and a new dimension for the development of sustainable agriculture in line with reducing the environmental pollution and help in arresting the climate change and global warming.
A. Embodiment 1
MROM-1. The material obtained from the saturated BUNKERMAN filters has been found to contain a high value of minerals like N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, C etc. The constituent and composition depends on the design of the filter adopted and the area in which it has been used. The constituents of the filters used in residential area may well differ from those used in industries and high toxic areas. However, in general, the material contains a good amount of minerals like N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and C which are useful for the growth of the plants and to maintain biodiversity and clean environment. Therefore, the simplest method of preparing MROM from this waste material is just to crush it into a powder form in dry condition and test its constituents. Additional quantity of minerals or even some additional minerals like Fe, Cu etc can also be added at this stage, if required. The final product is tested in the laboratory to check whether it meets the requirements of the MROM and packed as per the laid down norms for packaging. The Process Flow Diagram is given at Figure 1 below.
Figure 1 : Simplified Process of Manufacturing MROM-1 From Waste of Saturated Filters of BUNKERMAN's CO2/TVOC and Pollution Removal System
B. Embodiment 2
MROM-2. The preparation of MROM-2 involves simple biological and physical methods as indicated in Figure 2. In this method, the biodegradable agricultural waste, Cow Dung, Gomutra (Cow Urine), the waste obtained from saturated filters of Bunkerman CO2/TVOC Removal Systems and other important minerals like Rock Phosphate, Zeolite, Bentonite, Gypsum, Kaolin, Carbon, Silica etc, depending on the local availability, are used to manufacture MROM.
Figure 2 : Simplified Process of Manufacturing MROM-2 From Waste of Saturated Filters and Biodegradable Agricultural Wastes
The detailed stepwise procedure is listed below:-
C. Embodiment 3
MROM-3. In this method, first the vermi compost is prepared from the agricultural waste by using cow dung and the earth worms. Then the waste obtained from BUNKERMAN filters is processed and mixed with this Vermi compost in appropriate proportion in a mixing bed. Additional minerals/nutrients are then added to it, if required. The prepared MROM is then tested in the laboratory for quality check and then sent for packaging and further use in organic farms. The manufacturing process is illustrated in Figure 3 below.
D. Embodiment 4
Experiments conducted on Earthworms have shown that the earthworms grow better and faster on mineral rich diet. Earthworms need a continuous supply of calcium. South Australian research found that earthworm numbers doubled when pH(CaCl2) in their feed/soil rose from 4.1 to 6.7. Experiments were conducted by adding the waste of BUNKERMAN's saturated filters to the feeding material supplied to the earth worms and it was found that the size and number of earthworms was considerably increased in this process. The resulting vermi compost was also found to be rich in mineral contents. Therefore, the fourth type of MROM i.e. MROM-4 was prepared as per the process illustrated in Figure 4 below.
The test results conducted on soils (Table 1 to 3) indicate that the mineral contents of the soil get improved by addition of Vermi Compost and MROM-1. The test results shown in Tables 4 and 5 indicate that the mineral contents of Vermi Compost get significantly enhanced by addition of MROM-1 to the Vermi Compost. This mixture of Vermi Compost and MROM-1, in fact, forms MROM-3 discussed above. The tests results of MROM-2 and MROM-4 also showed a significant amount of mineral content in the manure which are useful for the plant growth.
The \"Minerals Rich Organic Manure (MROM)\" is manufactured from the biodegradable agricultural waste, Cow Dung, Gomutra (Cow Urine), the waste obtained from saturated filters of Bunkerman CO2/TVOC Removal Systems and other important minerals like Rock Phosphate, Zeolite, Bentonite, Gypsum, Kaolin, Carbon, Silica etc, available in nature. The emphasis has been on the significance of sustaining agricultural productivity and microbial diversity in the rhizosphere In this manner, the nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and total nutrient of the soil, improve greatly with use of MROM in farming. Four types of \"Minerals Rich Organic Manures (MROM-1 to MROM-4)\" have been manufactured by making use of the waste obtained from saturated filters of Bunkerman CO2/TVOC Removal Systems, the biodegradable agricultural waste, Cow Dung, Gomutra (Cow Urine) and other important minerals like Rock Phosphate, Zeolite, Bentonite, Gypsum, Kaolin, Carbon, Silica etc, available in nature.
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Copyright © 2023 Dr. Shri Pal, Ravinder Kumar, Lalit Sharma. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.