Authors: Prof. Saniya Khan
DOI Link: https://doi.org/10.22214/ijraset.2023.49372
Certificate: View Certificate
High ohmic resistance faults area unit troublesome to find by standard overcurrent relays principally thanks to their low current magnitudes. This paper describes a model for representing high ohmic resistance faults in electrical distribution systems. The model is predicated in a very non-linear resistance representing the high ohmic resistance path throughout this sort of faults. Supported this model, the performance of many electrical variables associated to high ohmic resistance faults is analyzed and an algorithmic rule for top ohmic resistance fault detection in electrical distribution systems is given. Field activity and pc simulations validate the high ohmic resistance fault model and therefore the projected fault detection algorithmic rule. A high ohmic resistance fault (HIF) is generated once an energized conductor (of a primary feeder) makes contact with the bottom or with neighboring objects like branch trees, overgrown vegetation, building walls, asphalt, any object to ground. Such faults area unit undetectable by standard overcurrent devices like overcurrent relays and fuses as a result of their low current magnitude. What is more, arcing accompanies high ohmic resistance faults (hifs) and represents a risk of security to folks and injury to physical infrastructure. Thus, so as to get a trustworthy detection algorithmic rule, it\'s necessary to possess a reliable high ohmic resistance fault model. This paper presents an analysis of the HIF trial run results and a technique for modeling hifs by considering one nonlinear resistance to represent the fault.
High electrical phenomenon fault (HIF) detection represents a true challenge to protection engineers in electrical utilities owing to the complexity and variability of the phenomena concerned. Hifs have the characteristic of manufacturing low current magnitudes compared to nominal load currents, that makes difficult its detection by conventional over current relays in a very reliable manner [1,2]. Some additional options that impudence HIF detection are atmospheric condition, fault conditions, fault distance, short-circuit rate, conductor kindest.
There exist several causes resulting in hifs in Electrical Distribution Systems (EDS). As an example, a HIF might occur once an energized conductor makes contact with the soil surface while not solid grounding, or once the conductor get connected with a branch tree or the other object representing a high electrical phenomenon path to ground. Underneath these circumstances, the comparatively high voltages close to masses and therefore the discharge associated to hifs rep-resents a heavy risk to public safety and a serious concern on industrial installations. The matter of HIF detection has long been recognized by the industry and a number of other techniques are planned within the literature. In 1988, Huang et al. evaluated the performance of 4 different algorithms for HIF detection employing a staged fault check . The evaluations were done off-line and therefore the results incontestable that, under bound circumstances, some algorithms perform higher than others. Latter, in the 90s, Emmanuel et al. Administered extensive measurements of harmonic currents at a ‘‘staged ground impedance fault in sandy soil’’. The aim was to assess to what extent harmonic currents are often used for HIF detection . In 1997, Zori et al. developed an algorithmic program for arcing fault detection using the bus voltages and therefore the odd harmonics.
The most contribution of this paper is that the development of general purpose model for representing hifs of various characteristics in EDS based mostly in a very single non-linear resistance. A second contribution is that the development of an algorithmic program for HIF detection in EDS.
In order to attain these objectives, the paper has been organized as follows: within the second section, the results of many tests are conferred. Supported these measurements, within the third sectional model for representing hifs is planned. The model relies in calculating a non- linear resistance representing the high impedance path associated to the fault. This section additionally includes a methodology for calculative the model parameters. Within the fourth section, an algorithmic program for HIF detection in EDS is conferred and tested. Finally, the paper conclusions are drawn.
It ought to be mention that the HIF model and therefore the HIF detection algorithmic program were implemented within the MODELS section of the choice transient program (ATP)  for validation functions. The event of an algorithmic program for HIF detection needs suitable illustration for the high electrical phenomenon existing throughout this kind of events. The set of measurements conferred within the previous section recommend a robust non-linear resistive element for representing hifs. Specially, this paper proposes a model based mostly in a single non-linear resistance. This element would represent the high electrical phenomenon path because of the electrical arc associated to hifs and additionally the come path through ground and the other contact object sort of a branch tree, as an example. For a given fault, the electrical parameters for this non-linear resistance are often calculated from measurements. Since every activity is exclusive, then the models parameters can vary in a very bound vary. The model development and the calculation of those parameters are currently self-addressed.
II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Fault location in an unbalanced multi-lateral distribution network having many branches, laterals, load faucets and distributed generation may be a major challenge. Just in case of multi-lateral distribution network, the fault location theme must accurately find the faulted line section to avoid the matter of multiple fault location candidates. Ancient fault location schemes in such network employs extra measures to separate out the precise fault location out of the multiple candidates. To beat the higher than mentioned downside, a brand new hybrid methodology combining high-frequency transient methodology and electrical phenomenon primarily based methodology is planned during this work for fault location in an exceedingly unbalacened multi-lateral distribution network. This methodology 1st identifies the road section with fault then the electrical phenomenon primarily based methodology is employed to find the precise fault location. The simulation results obtained demonstrate that the planned theme for fault location is capable of locating all shunt fault sort with sensible accuracy.
2. Z. Liang “high impedance fault detection in power distribution systems with impedance-based methods in frequency domain”, ph.d. Thesis, sun yat-sen university, (2016) october.
The power systems are complicated and not continuously simple to grasp. Currently a days distributed generation (dg) supported renewable energy resources registered associate degree exponential progress inspired by the policy manufacturers, world issues concerning co a pair of emissions, energy shortage, and anxiety for clean strength generation. This results in a fast and constant upgrading of improvement during this explicit region, conveyance these systems at a degree wherever their unwavering quality and fitness is no longer examined. The best challenge for electrical engineers is to produce a more robust protection theme to notice the high electrical phenomenon faults (hifs). Hif conventionally happen once the first conductor makes unwanted contact with a rod surface, sod, tree limb, that restricts the flow of fault current to grade beneath that systematically detectable by standard overcurrent devices. A unique and economical protection theme have to be compelled to able to notice the hifs and which might operate facility adequately, and protects the instrumentation still because the public from dangerous over voltages. This paper pursues is to analysis of literature associated to hif look. During this work, mathematical logic technique used for hif detection square measure assessed. The projected hif model offers a lot of actual and consistent compared to alternative ways.
3. M. F. Akorede, “Wavelet Transform Based Algorithm for High- Impedance Faults Detection in Distribution Feeders”, European Journal of Scientific Research, vol. 20, no. 2, (2010) September, pp. 237- 247.
A novel methodology for top electrical resistance fault (HIF) detection supported pattern recognition systems is given in this paper. Using this methodology, hifs are often discriminated from insulator discharge current (ILC) and transients like capacitor switching, load switch (high/low voltage), ground fault, inrush current and no water level switch. Rippling rework is employed for the decomposition of signals and have extraction, feature selection is finished by principal part analysis and Bayes used for classi?cation. HIF and ILC information was no heritable from experimental tests and also the information for transients was obtained by simulation using EMTP program. Results show that the proposed procedure is efficient in characteristic hifs from different events
Modeling of HIF for electrical distribution networks in figure shown below. Linear HIF model to review hifs, a primary approximation considering a pure resistance was at the start used. This can be a questionable assumption as a result of the spatiality of the fault currents were neglected .
However, this model was adopted for the analysis of this subject. The most disadvantage of this model is that top ohmic resistance faults is also mistaken for load currents. Therefore, transient elements might facilitate improve the HIF detection and can have a major impact on the quantity of HIF detection. 2.2. Diodes-based model one amongst the primary models accustomed study hifs in electrical distribution systems was rumored in 1990 . This model was developed from measurements recorded in a very 13.8 kv distribution feeder, wherever the conductor was touching the sandy soil. This has become the foremost widespread model. Fig. One shows a simplified model supported 2 diodes and 2 d.c. Voltage sources connected in parallel to get the most characteristics of a HIF. Fig. 2(a) and (b) show a typical HIF wave using a diodes-based model, wherever this spatiality and therefore the non-linear of voltage-current (V-I) characteristics are discovered.
Current or each current and voltage waveforms as input options for HIF detection. throughout HIF because the increase of current with respect to the pre-fault current is incredibly less (in this study it's kept < 5%), the distortions and irregularities within the current waveform at the relay location is insignificant that is clearly evident from Fig. 5(a). However, the voltage waveforms area unit less addicted to pre-fault loading conditions. HIFs area unit principally single-line-to-ground sort. Occurrences of such faults introduce unbalance into the system and may manufacture vital percentage of residual current with regard to the positive sequence current just in case of a grounded distribution system.
However, vital share of residual voltage with respect to the positive-sequence voltage exists each for grounded and isolated grounded distribution system. In the present work, residual voltage is taken into account as a feature for the detection of HIF. The detail machine steps of the proposed technique area unit provided below. The three-phase voltages are collected at the relay bus at 1 khz sampling rate for a 50 Hz power system. The residual voltage erk computed at kth instant is given as
The fault detector index gk is zero throughout traditional operative condition (including each balanced and unbalanced loading). At the origin of a fault (for each tangency fault yet as HIF) or the other non-fault events (e.g. Load switch, capacitor switch etc.), the worth the worth will increase from zero to higher price altogether cases and once more returns to zero among two cycle (40 ms) altogether cases except HIF. Just in case of HIF, the value of gk remains high until it persists. This is often happened thanks to the presence of distortions and irregularities within the residual voltage during HIF. Within the gift study twait is fastened at zero.1 s. Though, the criterion, gk+twait > 0 is able to discriminate HIF from the other non-fault transients, tiny low tiny low greater than zero is taken into account for making certain security in HIF detection. For higher understanding the projected theme is provided within the flow chart as shown in Fig
The projected methodology is tested by making HIFs at totally different locations of the take a look at feeder of EMTDC/PSCAD simulation computer code is employed for information generation. The data sampling rate is maintained at one kilocycle. Performance of the proposed methodology is additionally tested for various non-fault events such as balanced and unbalanced load shift and capacitors switching that additionally manufacture similar characteristics as that of HIF. The different strategies offered within the literature either use current or each current and voltage waveforms as input options for HIF detection. throughout HIF because the increase of current with respect to the pre-fault current is extremely less (in this study it's kept < 5%), the distortions and irregularities within the current waveform at the relay location is insignificant that is clearly evident. However, the voltage waveforms ar less captivated with pre-fault loading conditions. HIFs ar largely single-line-to-ground sort. Occurrences of such faults introduce unbalance into the system and may manufacture important percentage of residual current with relevancy the positive sequence current just in case of a grounded distribution system. However, important share of residual voltage with respect to the positive-sequence voltage exists each for grounded and isolated grounded distribution system. In the present work, residual voltage is taken into account as a feature for the detection of HIF.
A superimposed part of residual voltage primarily based technique is planned during this paper for police investigation hifs in distribution systems put in with distributed generators. The method is tested for hifs initiated at totally different locations of the feeder. Performance of the theme is additionally tested for various non-fault events like unbalanced loading, single-phase load switching and electrical condenser change which may generally conjointly produce similar characteristics as that of hifs. The results show that using planned theme hifs may be detected with high accuracy in 0.1 s once the beginning of the fault. The computational burden of the planned theme is additionally terribly less.
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Copyright © 2023 Prof. Saniya Khan. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Paper Id : IJRASET49372
Publish Date : 2023-03-03
ISSN : 2321-9653
Publisher Name : IJRASET
DOI Link : Click Here