Authors: Ms. Saniya Lade, Ms. Prachi Lade, Ms. Divya Chandiwale, Mr. Ankit Barodkar, Mr. Dinesh Ghate, Mr. Grishal Gaydhane, Prof. S. S. Ghosh
Certificate: View Certificate
Soil is of great importance to agriculture, especially the moisture and nutrients in the soil are the essential ingredients for growing plants and crops. Therefore, benefits and importance of a soil moisture and nutrient monitoring system in modern agriculture and gardening is undeniable. It can also be an interesting feature of an intelligent home or smart agriculture system using the internet of things (IoT) technology. This paper presents an IoT application in Arduino platform aiming to monitor the change in soil moisture and Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K) (NPK) value for an indoor plant using moisture sensors and optical transducers. Other functionalities and important features of this prototype include online data display infographic as user feedback, level-based nutrient classification for enabling proper type of fertilizer selection, hardware and e-mail notification of moisture and nutrients\' easily accessible and user-friendly smartphone app.
In this study we investigated the effects of N fertilization on cotton growth and yield, and on arthropod populations and the activity of arthropod natural enemies in cotton. Specifically, we tested the following hypotheses N fertilization will correlate positively with cotton plant growth. Increased N fertilization will increase pest populations because plants with more N will be more nutritious for and attractive to herbivores. Out of them solid fertilization is one of the most important and day-to-day job of the farmers. With the help of automation the work becomes easy and errorless. Robots small sized wheels performs well, the lightweight of the robots do not compact the soil.
The idea of applying robotics technology in agriculture is very new. In agriculture, the opportunities for robot-enhanced productivity are immense – and the robots are appearing on farms in various guises and in increasing numbers. We can expect the robots performing agricultural operations autonomously. Due to lack of technical knowledge most of the processes are still traditional. Even though mechanization is introduced into agriculture, its use is quite low. The main factor responsible for this problem is that the high cost of farm machineries. Most of the farmers have small share of land in their possession and cannot afford to own these machineries also the hourly rent for these machines is not feasible. Thus need of low cost agriculture machines arise. The machine should be value for money. The following machine should have multiple uses in agriculture. It should be handy and easy to operate.
II. PROBLEM STATEMENT
We aim to modify existing machine which is used to placed the fertilizer under soil for cotton crop using IoT enabled operation for better performance compared to existing one.
Drip irrigation is less wasteful than sprinklers. It isn't always only extra green for fertilizer usage, but can also be for maximizing nutrient uptake in vegetation like cotton. Drip irrigation the usage of fertigation can also increase yield and first-rate of it and plants, especially in subsurface drip structures instead of above floor drip tape. Sprinkler structures leaf and fruit fine. Continuous application Fertilizer is provided at a constant fee. Three- stage application-Irrigation starts with out fertilizers. Fertilizers are implemented later inside the method. Proportional application-Injection fee is proportional to water discharge rate. Quantitative software- Nutrient answer is carried out in a calculated amount to every irrigation block. Other techniques of application encompass the lateral flow, solid set structures. Concentration of the answer may additionally lower as the fertilizer dissolves, this depends on gadget choice. If poorly decided on may additionally lead to bad nutrient.
III. BLOCK DIAGRAM
It consist of a tank with segment. If the user is enter the type of plant by using mobile that system will mix the needed fertilizer with water and sprayed to the plant through the sprayer machine. In this block diagram, PIC16F877A Microcontroller is a open source programmable device which is programmed in MP Lab compiler .5v Power supply is given to microcontroller. It consist of two sensors temperature and moisture sensor which is placed in the soil to sense the temperature and moisture ratio. Both the sensor are interfaced with microcontroller temperature and moisture data will be collected continuously in the IoT module and the data will be stored in the IoT cloud. If there is any change in the predetermined data it will be indicated in the mobile phone and the required amount of fertilizer ratio will be displayed in the Liquid Crystal Display Correlation: It gives the measure of pixel how itis correlated to the neighbour of the whole image. The value is 1 or -1 for perfect positive or negative image.
IV. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
V. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
A. Material Selection
For study the working mechanism of fertilizer robot under multilayer fertilization technique an experimental investigation performed.
B. Mechanical Material
Material selection is a step in the process of designing of any physical objects in the content of product. The main goal of material selection is to minimize cost while meeting performance goals.
C. Electronic Materials
Electronic materials are for designing the PCB (Printed Circuit Board) and developing the Software to control the whole fertilizer machine.
1. Electronic Components
a. Microcontroller (ATMEGA16): Microcontrollers play an important role in the development of embedded systems. A microcontroller is a small computer on a single metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) integrated circuit (IC) chip. A microcontroller contains one or more CPUs (processor cores) along with memory and programmable input/output peripherals. Program memory in the form of ferroelectric RAM, NOR flash or OTP ROM is also often included on chip, as well as a small amount of RAM. Microcontrollers are designed for embedded applications, in contrast to the microprocessors used in personal computers or other general purpose applications consisting of various discrete chips. Microcontrollers are used where automation is an integral part of the system. Specification: 40 pin, 8 bit, RAM=512 kb, speed=16MHz, voltage supply=2.7V-5.5V
b. Integrated Circuit(I.C): Integrated circuit (IC) (microchip), is an assembly of electronic components, fabricated as a single unit, in which miniaturized active devices (e.g., transistors and diodes) and passive devices (e.g., capacitors and resistors) and their interconnections are built up on a thin substrate of semiconductor material (typically silicon).
Specification: 8 bit, voltage supply=4.5 to 5.25V
D. Field Trial & Testing
Completing assembly work we fabricate the fully automated robot. Then after we move towards trial field which select the farm of Waddhamna village, Amravati Road, Nagpur. In a soil of Black Loamy Sand and ambient condition. After completing the trial and testing with respect to time, ingredient and no. of crops the speed of the robot is 58 m/min of each plant at fertilizer per quantity 30 grams. So the objective of our project is successfully works.
a. To Select parts & Fabricate the model using suitable manufacturing operations.
b. To make use of Advanced Technology such as Lora for functioning of the robot
c. To Test the robot in the field for its functioning
d. To reduced man power during from field activity
e. To examine the role of agriculture in economic development of Edo state
f. To suggest possible solution to the problems that have emanated.
g. To examine the role of agriculture in economic development of Vidharbha region.
h. To make appropriate recommendations to the farmers or modern use of farming techniques.
3. Benefits Of Fertirobotics
a. High speed Fertilization and Time savings.
b. Less fatigue to labor Applicable for small and medium farms.
c. Easy to operate, as no skilled operator required.
d. It increased will increases cotton production as seed can be placed uniformly in a row with required distance between plants.
e. Requirement of labor is less and Maintenance cost is low.
f. It is easy to assemble, pollution free and No electric power required.
g. Improvement in planting efficiency. Increase in crop yield and cropping reliability.
VI. FUTURE SCOPE
A framework of the fertigation management system in IoT-based smart greenhouses is developed. In this framework, two kinds of decision making are involved, long-term planning and short-term planning. These two planning have not been considered simultaneously in existing studies on fertigation systems in which only the latter was investigated.
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Copyright © 2022 Ms. Saniya Lade, Ms. Prachi Lade, Ms. Divya Chandiwale, Mr. Ankit Barodkar, Mr. Dinesh Ghate, Mr. Grishal Gaydhane, Prof. S. S. Ghosh. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.