Authors: Sushma J Ballal, Yashwanth C , Chethana BR , Dr. Anuroopa
DOI Link: https://doi.org/10.22214/ijraset.2022.46986
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Nanoparticles are defined as the particles at the scale measuring from 1-100 nanometers. Nanotechnology is embedded in the operation of all miniscule particles measuring in factor of 10-9. These materials have a significant role in medicine, pharmacy, biotechnology, environment and other fields. Nanoparticles are used as agents in drug and gene delivery for the treatment of certain tumor and cancer treatment. However, nanoparticles are environmentally toxic and pose challenges to the society with respect to their removal. This review would present a well refined knowledge of the nanoparticles, types, synthesis by chemical and biological methods, with their applications. Along with them the review presents about the nanotechnology, the fields it’s being utilized and techniques involved, and the recent updates in this evolving branch of science.
Understanding and maneuvering the particles at nano scale has its own applications, like in the field of medicine (Salata, 2004), industries (Stark et.al, 2014), agriculture, etc; There are many types of nanoparticles for example; gold, silver, copper, fluorescent nanoparticles like cadmium containing quantum dots, fluorescent carbon nanoparticles (FCNPs) (Sanni et.al, 2021) etc. Knowledge of the various kinds of nanoparticles, their synthesis, also their applications will lead to appropriate use of them in various fields. The techniques employed for the preparation are physical methods like laser ablation, evaporation-condensation etc.(Iravani et.al, 2013), chemical methods like chemical reduction, solvothermal method, polyol process etc.,and biological methods makes use of living biological systems to synthesize nanoparticles. This is called biogenic synthesis and is done from various bacteria, fungi, algae, yeasts, actinomycetes, viruses and plants (Sastri et.al, 2003).
The advancement in this field has brought various beneficial and harmful effects on the environment (Soares et.al, 2021), micro-organisms (Theivasanthi et.al, 2011) and to human beings. Like the star clusters that build up the galaxies these nanoparticles build up the nanotechnology where it is used as a prominent tool for diagnostics, in agriculture, in industries etc;Nanotechnology ideas and concepts were first introduced by American physicist Richard Feyman. The invention of scanning tunneling microscope in 1981 led to the unfolding of the manipulation and control over the individual atoms.The tools and techniques involved and the recent updates in this field, through this review can prove helpful in having a better understanding of nanoparticles and nanotechnology, and its wide application.
II. TYPES OF NANOPARTICLES
III. BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS OF NANOPARTICLES
A. Chemical Synthesis
This is basically a bottom up approach, where the atoms form clusters, resulting in the formation of nanoparticles (Abid et.al, 2021). Chemical synthesis is basically using certain chemicals to obtain a desired product.
There are various methods that have been developed to procure the desired nanoparticles:
B. Biological or Green Synthesis
This is also a bottom up approach of synthesis. As chemical synthesis involves usage of chemicals, few of them are hazardous; it was more apt for the usage of biological organisms for the synthesis of nanoparticles for its more natural and has become more attractive than other traditional methods.
There are two ways in this synthesis:
C. Living Organisms for NPs Synthesis
This involves using plants, fungi, bacteria, viruses (Kapoor et.al, 2021), lichens (Hamida et.al, 2021), actinomycetes, diatoms etc; for NPs synthesis.
The nanoparticles synthesized for these beings will possess the same property as the chemical or physically synthesized ones like AMA, antioxidants and for characterization UV visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction etc; are used (Baran et.al, 2021) e.g.; Using virus, the quantum dots can be produced, this is used in DNA engineering & in pharmaceutal industry, and marine microbes like Oscillatoriawillei are utilized for inorganic nanoparticle production (Kapoor et.al, 2021).
IV. EFFECTS OF NANOPARTICLES
The types and synthesis of nanoparticles can lead us into the next section of the review, regarding their effects that they can cause to the environment, human beings and microorganisms.
The first thing to be considered is the source of nanoparticles. They can be stationary sources like coal, oil, and gas fired stationary combustion sources (Biswas et.al, 2005), mobile emissions like diesel, LPG, CNG Vehicles, occupational setting like industrial processes, cleaning, disposal etc.
A. Effects on Human Health
These nanoparticles can get deposited in respiratory regions for e.g., Fine PM2.5 (Particulate Matter 2.5) particles leading to fatal respiratory problems. (Biswas et.al, 2005), Airborne nanoparticles have high mobility leading to their deposition in the alveolar tissue causing adverse effects, like chronic bronchitis, the NPs like TiO2 can also induce aging (Wu et al, 2009), Translocation occurs at the interstitial sites in the olfactory pathways and HT29 (Human colorectal adenocarcinoma) cells had reduced viability due to AuNPs. (Sani et al, 2021)
B. Effects on Environment
The nanoparticles can get released into the environment from industries, waste management or from the other sources mentioned above.
They can get accumulated in the soil disrupting the soil enzymes like nitrate reductase, β- galactosidase etc. The research also revealed that NPs oxidation lead to the ROS production in living cells.
There have toxic influences on plant physiology like lowering of transpiration rate, decline in the growth and development of the zooplanktons and phytoplankton (Khanna et al, 2021).
C. Effects on Microorganisms
NPs have shown negative effects on the pure cultures of E.coli, Bacillus subtilis etc. (Khanna et al, 2021). There has been cell wall damage in S.cerevisiae due to the exposure of ZnO NPs (Soares et.al, 2021), there was even loss of membrane integrity and apoptic cell death. CuO and Fe3O4 showed negative impact on soil microbial population in the exposed soil region (Khanna et.al, 2021). The ZnO and Ag NPs inhibit the natural gut microflora (Yoo et.al, 2021).
There are not all harmful outcomes of NPs, they have helped mankind and there have been a lot of developments in the technology and strategies like material substitution, sensor detection, process emission control etc; to overcome the above-mentioned problems. There are devices or instrumentation to collect these NPs like Thermophoretic collection, Electrostatic collection, filtration etc. (Biswas et.al, 2005).
To recognize and understand the data we have in this field various tools and software. There have been various algorithms like GTDWFE that is used for prediction; PARGT is a software that was created using R software and Python (Nahvi et.al, 2022). This helped in learning the potentiality of chemotherapy with nanotechnology efficacy.
There has been utilization of bacteriophages and whole virions for pathogenic bacterial detection for biosensors have been used as the nanotools for diagnostics e.g., when T4 phage was seen successfully oriented on to the Au surface (biosensor) (Richter et.al, 2018) (Paczesny et.al, 2020) (Agnihotri et.al, 2022).
There are even tools that is previously mentioned for characterization of the nanoparticles like UV-spectroscopy, TEM, SEM, AFM, for the production of biofuel and bioenergy and numerous other fields (Nalluri et.al, 2021) and there are a few lithography and fabrication systems as well (Tinker, 2004).
V. APPLICATIONS AND RECENT UPDATES IN NANOTECHNOLOGY
There are numerous latest applications in this field that are generating and being found every single day in numerous fields.
Metal Nanoparticle products obtained by green synthesis approach like Nano fertilizers, Nano pesticides, Nano fungicides have shown increase in the productivity of yield (Bahrulolum et.al, 2021).
C. Industrial Applications
There are a few companies like Alnis Bioscience, Inc., BASF, Immunicon, Nanosphere, Inc.,NanoPharm AG that commercializes nanomaterials for bio and medical applications (Salata, 2004).
Even though Nanotechnology requires high intricate methods and proficient skills to handle and work with, their evolving applications in heterogenous fields are worth the effort, but their risks should also to be kept in mind while using them. Although the availability of raw products to produce the NPs are many, their processing and commercializing will take time and is not a layman’s forte. Their types, synthesis, effects of NPs, tools and software used, applications can be a holistic view in comprehending them for universal betterment with minimal consequences.
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Copyright © 2022 Sushma J Ballal, Yashwanth C , Chethana BR , Dr. Anuroopa . This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Paper Id : IJRASET46986
Publish Date : 2022-10-05
ISSN : 2321-9653
Publisher Name : IJRASET
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