Authors: Nistha Singh, Debanjana Basu
DOI Link: https://doi.org/10.22214/ijraset.2022.45996
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The present research was conducted with the purpose to determine the relationship between Organizational Justice and Occupational Stress and to explore the relationship between Organizational Justice and the underlying factors of Occupational Stress among Indian police personnel. A total of 51 employees (31 male and 20 female) serving in police force among different states of India were taken through simple random sampling technique. Tools used for data collection were Organizational Justice Scale by Colquitt, 2001 and Occupational Stress Index by Srivastava and Singh, 1984. Mean, Standard Deviation, Pearson product-moment were used for data analysis. The result stated that mean score of Occupational Stress was more than the mean score of Organizational Justice. It indicated the dominating factors of Occupational Stress which collectively increases the perception of Occupational Stress among existing participants. The most dominating factors were Role Overload, Strenuous working condition, Responsibility for persons and Role Conflict; moderate dominating factors were Role Ambiguity, Unreasonable group and Political pressures, Under-participation, Powerlessness, Poor peer Relations, Intrinsic impoverishment and Unprofitability. While the least dominating factor was Low status. In addition, the result described that Organizational Justice is negatively correlated with Occupational Stress. Simultaneously, it was found that Organizational Justice is negatively associated with the factors of Occupational Stress like Role Overload, Role Ambiguity, Role Conflict, Unreasonable group and Political pressures, Under participation, Powerlessness, Poor peer Relations, Intrinsic impoverishment, Low status and Unprofitability; and positively correlated with factor Responsibility for persons. The correlation coefficients between the given variables were found significant at 0.05 level of significance. Therefore, it is recommended that management should try to reduce Occupational Stress while encouraging fair treatment to promote Organizational Justice among police personnel.
Any private or public sector organization which comes into existence has a certain specified goal and a set of objectives to achieve. The present research revolves around the Indian police personnel. The term police have been derived from the Latin word ‘politia’ which means ‘the condition of a state’. Police organization refers to the organization which involves in the management of policing process (Levis, 2010). The word “organization” is linked to police as the police function through organized agencies and units (Gary Cordner & Joseph Schafer, 2017). Like any other organization, the police organizations also have their different aspects; and these aspects affect their functioning process as well as their functioning outcomes. As police organizations is a vital part of any society for maintaining peace, law and order, security etc., it is very important to study about those aspects. The present research focuses on studying the relationship between two types of those aspects i.e., to study the nature and direction of relationship between Organizational Justice and Occupational Stress among Indian police personnel.
A. Organizational Justice: Concept And Components
The concept of justice is an important aspect for any organization but when it is the ground for police organization this concept becomes even more important because the knowledge of justice has a tremendous effect on the functioning of the police personnel and this ultimately affects the social or public welfare as a whole.
The term ‘organizational justice’ refers to an extent to which any of the employees perceive workplace procedures, interactions and outcomes to be fair in nature. Organizational justice (OJ) was coined by the psychologists Jerald Greenberg in 1987.
“Organizational justice is always concerned with the ways in which the employees determine if they have been treated fairly in their jobs or not and the ways in which those determinations influence other work-related variables” (Moorman, 1991).
There are different types of organizational justice i.e., distributive justice, procedural justice, interpersonal justice, and informational justice.
2. Procedural Justice (Decision-Making Processes): Procedural justice mainly indicates the perceptions of fairness in relation to the means, mechanisms, and processes by which the benefits and rewards are distributed in the organizations (Leventhal, 1980).
3. Interactional Justice (Interpersonal Treatment): Interactional justice corresponds to the human side of organizational justice and it was defined as the way in which the directors and managers treat their employees during the application of procedures (Bies and Moag, 1986).
Greenberg (1993), described that the social components of interactional justice can be broken down into two different types of justice:
a. Interpersonal justice refers to the degree to which people are treated with politeness, dignity, and respect by the member of authorities or third parties who are involved in the executing procedures or determining outcomes.
b. Informational justice can be defined as the justice which focuses on the truthfulness and adequacy of the information and explanations that are provided to the employees regarding the distribution of outcomes and/or the implementation of procedures.
B. Occupational Stress: Definition And Implications
The second important aspect of the present research holds an important area, as it directly and indirectly affects the organizational output, organizational success and organizational development. In the police, the concept of stress grasps a core place of importance because policing is a highly stressful occupation where they have to face challenges and take risk in their daily work. This stress has a negative impact on police personnel’s mental and physical health, performance, and interactions with citizens.
So, it is important to build a systematic body of well-researched information and understanding about stress and occupational stress among police personnel.
The term ‘stress’ comes from the two Latin words “strictus” (tightness or narrowness) and “stringere” (to tighten). The word ‘stress’ was firstly coined and incorporated into the medical lexicon by Hans Selye in 1936 to describe “the nonspecific response of the body to any demand for change”.
The word stress was introduced in the occupational field during the 1980s as one of the top ten occupational health problem in the United Nation by Sauter, Murphy and Hurrell; from this time the concept of ‘Occupational Stress’ came into existence and extended throughout the western industrialized nations.
Rabin, Feldman and Kaplan, 1999, defined occupational stress as “a discrepancy between the demands of one’s job and the ability to respond in an effective manner”.
The discussion above was made in the light of the objectives laid down from the present research topic to build a theoretical foundation and practical insight about organizational justice and sources of occupational stress in both general way and specifically among the police personnel. The aim of the present research is to study the nature and direction of relationship between Organizational Justice and Occupational Stress among Indian police personnel.
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
A. Importance Of Organizational Justice In Present Scenario
In today’s modern society, the concept of justice is very important as it enhances the promotion of fairness and equity among different aspects of the society. Why organizational justice is very important? This question has been researched by many scholars and researchers like Colquitt, Greenberg & Scott, 2005; Cropanzano et al., 2001; Folger, 1998; Gillesipie & Greenberg, 2005. To answer this question researchers pointed out three different approaches:
Given the importance of organizational justice in today’s world of cut-throat competition, rapidly changing market conditions, organizational dynamics and global politics, the following research findings in relation to organizational justice may serve the role of imparting certain impression about the need for developing more research hypotheses in order to attain better work environment, increased positive attitude, motivational boost and higher performance standards.
Research conducted in the context of police organization by Ole Boe et al., in 2019 explained the effect of organizational justice on work engagement among police employees. Result stated that employees who perceive fairness in their organization showed higher level of work engagement.
Research conducted in military context by Tepper and Taylor in 2003 points out that the officers who perceived more fairness especially procedural fairness in organization shows more organizational citizenship behavior.
Organizational justice has a positive relationship with employees’ trust towards the organization. Psychologists Dailey & Kirk in 1992 conducted research in the organizational context and found the result that when the employees perceive unfairness from their organizational side, the employees are more likely to develop negative attitude like lower trust and reduced commitment towards supervisors and the organization and can also act against organizational procedures and policies.
B. Occupational Stress: A determinant of Employee Health
In the context of police organization, research was conducted to measure the association of work-related stress with mental health problems among police personnel by Sergio Garbarino et al., in 2013. The findings of this research suggested that work-related stress play a major role in the growth of mental health problems (like depression, burnout, anxiety) among police personnel.
Different researches conducted in organizational context suggests that both employees and organizations adversely get effected by the outcomes of occupational stress. It poses serious threats to the health (physical and psychological) of the employees. The physical consequences reported by researches are chronic fatigue (Van der Ploeg & Kleber, 2003); disordered eating (King et al., 2009); headaches (Schaubroeck and Fink, 1998); increased blood pressure (Melamed et al., 2001); increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (Espnes and Byrne, 2008); and musculoskeletal pains (Eriksen et al., 2003). Some psychological consequences of occupational stress are emotional exhaustion (Coffey and Coleman, 2001); mood disturbance (Healy and Mckay, 2000); sleeping problems (Piko et al., 1999); lack of concentration (Shapiro et al., 2005); depression (Cho et al., 2008); anxiety (Bussing and hoge, 2004); and suicidal ideation (O connor et al., 2000).
Thus, it is evident from above mentioned research findings that the aspect of occupational stress is a serious concern that has been explored and studied by many researchers from past many years in relation to various antecedents in organizational context. This leads us to believe that occupational stress is still a subject of concern for many organizational bodies in their long-term strategic planning and decision making.
C. Relationship Between Organizational Justice And Occupational Stress: Research Findings
Various studies conducted by different researchers in the organization of police context investigated that experiencing high level of injustice especially in distribution and procedural justice can lead to low self-esteem, high occupational stress, high level of social dysfunction and chronic depression among police officers (Sheppard BH et al., 1992 & Elovainino et al., 2002). It has been also stated that high level of distributive and procedural injustice can lead to employees’ psychological distress (like neuroticism, emotional exhaustion and depression) (Tepper BJ 2001), negative emotions such as anger and aggression, and due to this employee feel dissatisfied with both work and non-work life (Ambrose ML et al., 2002).
The above mentioned, research findings clearly denote that there exists a relationship between organizational justice and occupational stress, but these researches do not provide a very clear picture about which domain or sources of occupational stress have been related to organizational justice. This lack of detail or gap in empirical findings leaves us with a pertinent question. The present research is taken up with the view to point out or to study the nature and direction of relationship between Organizational Justice and Occupational Stress among Indian police personnel.
Police personnel have been selected as sample for present research because perception of justice is very important for police employees as they are considered the symbol and embodiment of safe humanity. They perceive high levels of stress due to the demands of their jobs.
In fact, they are also the agents of justice in society and they can extend this gesture wilfully to society when only they experience low level of occupational stress at work.
Relationship between Organizational Justice and Occupational Stress among Indian police personnel
B. Aim of the study
To study the nature and direction of relationship between Organizational Justice and Occupational Stress among Indian police personnel.
The major objectives of the study include the following:
a. To assess the level of stress due to role overload among Indian police personnel.
b. To assess the level of stress due to role ambiguity among Indian police personnel.
c. To assess the level of stress due to role conflict among Indian police personnel.
d. To assess the level of stress due to unreasonable group and political pressures among Indian police personnel.
e. To assess the level of stress due to responsibility for persons among Indian police personnel.
f. To assess the level of stress due to under participation among Indian police personnel.
g. To assess the level of stress due to powerlessness among Indian police personnel.
h. To assess the level of stress due to poor peer relations among Indian police personnel.
i. To assess the level of stress due to intrinsic impoverishment among Indian police personnel.
j. To assess the level of stress due to low status among Indian police personnel.
k. To assess the level of stress due to strenuous working conditions among Indian police personnel.
l. To assess the level of stress due to unprofitability among Indian police personnel.
3. To find the relationship between Organizational Justice and Occupational Stress among Indian police personnel. This objective is further divided into the following:
a. To find the relationship between Organizational Justice and stress due to role overload among Indian police personnel.
b. To find the relationship between Organizational Justice and stress due to role ambiguity among Indian police personnel.
c. To find the relationship between Organizational Justice and stress due to role conflict among Indian police personnel.
d. To find the relationship between Organizational Justice and stress due to unreasonable group and political pressures among Indian police personnel.
e. To find the relationship between Organizational Justice and stress due to responsibility for persons among Indian police personnel.
f. To find the relationship between Organizational Justice and stress due to under participation among Indian police personnel.
g. To find the relationship between Organizational Justice and stress due to powerlessness among Indian police personnel.
h. To find the relationship between Organizational Justice and stress due to poor peer relations among Indian police personnel.
i. To find the relationship between Organizational Justice and stress due to intrinsic impoverishment among Indian police personnel.
j. To find the relationship between Organizational Justice and stress due to low status among Indian police personnel.
k. To find the relationship between Organizational Justice and stress due to strenuous working conditions among Indian police personnel.
l. To find the relationship between Organizational Justice and stress from unprofitability among Indian police personnel.
D. Operational Definitions
a. Role Overload: Bacharach et al., 1991- “Role overload refers to a situation whereby the employees’ role expectations exceed the resources or time available to fulfill assigned responsibilities”.
b. Role Ambiguity: Rizzo et al., 1970- “Role Ambiguity refers to a situation where the behaviors expected of an employee are unclear and contradictory respectively”.
c. Role Conflict: Cooper, 1991- “Role Conflict is the incongruence of role expectations and situation whereby an individual is expected to perform two or more different incompatible roles”.
d. Unreasonable Group and Political Pressures: Thorne 1989- “Unreasonable Group and Political Pressure is the power struggle and impact of power on employees within an organization”.
e. Responsibility for Persons: Knootz, 1982- “The obligation of a subordinate to carry out the duties assigned to employees”.
f. Under-participation: Oxford English Dictionary, 1992- Under-participation is defined as “not considering employee’s part, association, or sharing (with others) in some action or matter of organizations”.
g. Powerlessness: Karlsson 1993- “Powerlessness is defined as the experience that occurs when employees are repeatedly kept in powerless position by members of authorities who are in power position”.
h. Poor PeerRelations: Nisbett, 1993- Poor Peer-Relations in organization is defined as “the relationship among employees which are characterized by low supportiveness, low trust and low interest”.
i. Intrinsic impoverishment: Cohen, 1996- “The condition to assign monotonous nature of work with reduced opportunities to utilize one’s abilities and one’s skills”.
j. Low Status: Jim Davis, 2001- “The inferior status of the employees as compared to other employees in the organizational and social field”.
k. Strenuous Working Conditions: Pratto, 1996- “The conditions which require physical and mental demands combined with extended work rate”.
l. Unprofitability: Steve, 1984- “The quality of being on no benefit state in the organization apart from salary”.
F. Sample And Sampling
a. Age- Sample of the present research falls in the age range from 22 to 54 years.
b. Gender- Both male and female police personnel were selected.
c. Job Title- Police personnel working in various managerial ranks like Superintendent, Inspector, Sub-Inspector (SI), Asst. sub-inspector (ASI) were randomly selected as sample.
d. Job Location- Data was collected from Indian police personnel serving at different states of India like Uttarakhand, Odisha, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar etc.
e. Job Experience (In Years)- Sample of the present research had a job experience from minimum 1 year to maximum 32 years.
2. Sampling Method Used In Present Research: In the present research the participants were selected by using one of the different types of probability sampling methods i.e., simple random sampling, more specifically sampling without replacement.
3. Criteria Used In The Present Research
a. Inclusion Criteria
b. Exclusion criteria: Personnel who don’t meet the above mentioned inclusion criteria were excluded from the present research.
G. Tools used for the study
Data collection: In the present research, data was collected by using the below mentioned psychometric tools-
Data analysis: In the present research, data was processed, analyzed and presented by using below mentioned tools-
5. Microsoft Excel.
H. Description Of The Tools
These dimensions are known as sub-scales (or Occupational Stressors) by developers. The 12 sub-scales are (1) role overload, (2) role ambiguity, (3) role conflict, (4) unreasonable group and political pressures, (5) responsibility for persons, (6) under-participation, (7) powerlessness, (8) poor peer-relations, (9) intrinsic impoverishment, (10) low status, (11) strenuous working conditions, and (12) unprofitability. All these 46 items are to be rated on a 5-point scale, ranging from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree”. Out of 46 items, 28 items are ‘true-keyed’ items and the remaining 18 items are ‘false-keyed’ items. The reliability index ascertained by split half (odd-even) method and Cronbach’s Alpha-Coefficient for the scale as a whole were found to be .935 and .90, respectively. The validity of the O.S.I. was determined by computing coefficients of correlation between the scales on the O.S.I. and the various measure of job attitudes and job behaviour. The correlation between the scores on the O.S.I. and the measure of job anxiety (Srivastava, 1974) was to be 0.59 (N=400).
4. PSPP: PSPP is a program which can be used for statistical analysis of sampled data. It was developed at the end of the 1990s as a free software replacement for SPSS. It is generally a reliable, stable and open-source application as it processes over a billion variables, syntax and cases.
It can perform different functions like descriptive statistics, ANOVA, measures of association, t-tests, reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) and factor analysis, principal components analysis, chi-square analysis, linear and logistic regression, non-parametric tests, cluster analysis and more. Thus, it can be used in all three processing of data i.e., data presentation, data analysis, data visualization as well as in hypothesis testing.
5. Microsoft Excel: Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet which is developed by Microsoft for macOS, iOS, Windows and Android. It was developed in different versions starting from 1985 Excel 1.0 to latest version Excel 2019. It has different features like calculation or computation capabilities, pivot tables, and a macro programming language called Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). In addition, it can present or display various data as graphing i.e., line graphs, charts, histogram and with three-dimensional graphical presentation and also consist many more functions.
I. Procedure For Data Collection
For data collection, a google form named “Dissertation Questionnaires” was prepared after gaining some knowledge about google form’s description and features. Firstly, a brief introduction was given about the topic and purpose of the research along with eligibility criteria for participating in research and provision of confidentiality. Secondly, questions were inserted regarding biographical information followed by the formal instructions and items of the two scales i.e., Organizational Justice Scale and Occupational Stress Index. Thirdly, all the necessary settings were selected to complete the form. At last, after completing the form it was shared with the selected sample through email for data collection. Data was entered in the PSPP software thereafter and further statistical analyses were conducted.
J. Statistical Techniques
After collection of data, it was processed and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. In the present research, mean was used to derive the average score obtained by the sample, standard deviation was used to obtain the measure of dispersion, product-moment correlation coefficient was used to examine the correlation index and Probability value or p-value and levels of significance were used to test the hypotheses.
IV. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
After processing and analysing the data, necessary result tables and related graphs/scatter diagrams were drawn accordingly. A brief discussion about the present result findings was developed and reported subsequently.
Result table 1
Above drawn respective table showing the obtained values of Mean and Standard deviation (SD) of all the studied variables among Indian police personnel.
While comparing the average values of first two variables i.e., Organizational Justice and Occupational stress it should be noted that the mean value of Occupational stress (106.51) is higher than Organizational Justice (77.82). It represents the fact that the participants of present research perceived more Occupational stress in comparison to Organizational Justice. The most common factors or sources among participants behind perceiving more Occupational stress were Role Overload (18.88), Strenuous working condition (12.29), Responsibility for persons (12.04) and Role Conflict (10.04) because these four factors have greater mean values in comparison to other factors or sources of Occupational stress.
It can also be stated that participants do not experience much Occupational stress due to Low status (4.45) on the basis of having least mean value in comparison to all other remaining factors of Occupational Stress.
* p-values significant 0.05 alpha level
Result table 2
Above table depicts the obtained values of correlation between variables with respective comments on their significance of relationship.
From the above table it can be seen, that all the value of r consists an algebraic sign of minus (-) before the digits which reflects that there exists a negative (indirect association) correlation in all examined correlation between variables except the correlation between Organizational Justice and Responsibility for persons. There exists a positive correlation (direct association) between Organizational Justice and Responsibility for persons as here the value of r not consists an algebraic sign of minus (-) before the digits. All the obtained p-values are less than 0.05 level of significance, so it can explicate that the result findings in terms of all examined correlation between variables are considered to be statistically significant. All these result findings represent strong evidence against the null hypothesis and at the same time it provides evidence for research/alternative hypothesis. Therefore, all the null hypothesis [i.e., H0 (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7), (8), (7), (8), (9), (10), (11), (12), (13)] has been rejected and all the alternative hypothesis [i.e., Ha (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7), (8), (7), (8), (9), (10), (11), (12), (13) ] has been accepted.
Studies confirming negative correlation between Organizational Justice and Occupational Stress corroborate the finding from the present research.
Preeferi et al., (1990) concludes that Organizational Justice is negatively associated with Occupational Stress which ultimately leads to many mental and physical health hazards among employees in different organizations. Different researchers in the organization of police context investigated that experiencing high level of injustice can lead to low self-esteem, high occupational stress, high level of social dysfunction and chronic depression among police officers (Sheppard BH et al., 1992 &Elovainino et al., 2002). Whitman et al., (2012) concludes in their research result that justice climate can work as one of the predictors for negative health outcomes among employees (mental health like chronic work stress, panic, anxiety, mood swings, depression etc., and physical health like different types of cardiovascular diseases, respiratory problems etc). Thus, above mentioned research findings clearly demonstrated that there exists a negative correlation between Organizational Justice and Occupational Stress.
However, adequate number of empirical studies on the underlying factors of Occupational Stress related to perception of Organizational Justice are not present among police personnel. This has given rise to a certain gap in the full understanding of the relationship between Occupational Stress and Organizational Justice for the population of police workers. This similar concern was also pointed out by Naumann and Bennett in 2013 while commenting on the research findings of Whitman and team. i.e., what are the possible factors of work stress for which the concept of justice climate works as major predictor.
The present research was undertaken as an attempt to focus on the explanation of these aspects while filling the knowledge gap on a small scale whatsoever. Therefore, present research may open the avenues for other researchers to formulate further hypotheses in future similar to this idea.
The focus of current research was based on providing an understanding of the association of Organizational Justice and Occupational Stress and about the relationship between factors of Occupational Stress and Organizational Justice among Indian police personnel. The aspects of Organizational Justice and Occupational Stress were selected for study because it is well noted that the presence of justice as a basic requirement for security of human life in society has always been in history and will also remain in future (Edward, 2002). For today’s organization, the role of justice becomes more pronounced due to the pervasive work roles. Experts advised that Occupational Stress is the root cause for all the issues that employees as well as organization faces (i.e., health for the employees and business for the organizations) in the modern world. So, it becomes a key concern (Updegraff and Taylor, 2000). The result findings stated that the mean scores of Occupational Stress was more than the mean scores of Organizational Justice. It also indicates the dominating factors of Occupational Stress which collectively increases the perception of Occupational Stress among existing participants. The most dominating factors were Role Overload, Strenuous working condition, Responsibility for persons and Role Conflict; moderate dominating factors were Role Ambiguity, Unreasonable group and Political pressures, Under participation, Powerlessness, Poor peer Relations, Intrinsic impoverishment and Unprofitability. While the least dominating factor was Low status. In addition, the result findings described that Organizational Justice is negatively correlated with Occupational Stress. Simultaneously it is negatively associated with the factors of Occupational Stress like Role Overload, Role Ambiguity, Role Conflict, Unreasonable group and Political pressures, Under participation, Powerlessness, Poor peer Relations, Intrinsic impoverishment, Low status and Unprofitability; and positively correlated with factor Responsibility for persons. The result findings also disclosed that p-values of all examined correlation between variables were significant at 0.05 level of significance that promulgated correlation between given variables as statistically significant. Thus, it may be concluded that the current research has been able to comply with the aim of the study and has successfully fulfilled the objectives that were developed for this purpose. A. Some Most Important Implications Of The Present Study Are 1) The results imply that the less employees perceive Organizational Justice, the more chances they are going to perceive their work as stressful (Occupational Stress). So, maintenance of Organizational Justice is important for reducing sense of Occupational Stress among organization of police or vice versa. 2) It also provides information for future researchers about the more or less dominating factors of Occupational Stress that are potential causes behind high or low level of Occupational Stress at workplace as well as for researches to revise their association (direction and strength) with Organizational Justice. B. Some Limitations For The Present Study 1) In the present research, sample size was relatively very small thus limiting the scope of generalization of the result findings. 2) The current research was conducted focusing on a particular context i.e., police organization. So, the findings may or may not be generalized to different occupational contexts like hospital (doctors or nurses), teaching institutions (professors or teachers), court (lawyers or judges), general companies or organizations (IT employees) etc. These above mentioned limitations are the two most important limitations for the present study. C. Besides These Limitations, The Present Study Also Provides Some Scope For Further Studies 1) As the present research was conducted with a small sample size, it is advised to conduct future studies with a large sample size on the similar topic for best chances of generalization. 2) It is also suggested to conduct researches on the similar topic of present research focusing on different organizational contexts as Organizational Justice and Occupational Stress are one of the important aspects for any organization to survive successfully in today’s competitive world.
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Copyright © 2022 Nistha Singh, Debanjana Basu. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Authors : NISTHA SINGH
Paper Id : IJRASET45996
Publish Date : 2022-07-25
ISSN : 2321-9653
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