Authors: P. R. Abhimanyu Karthikeya Raja
Certificate: View Certificate
“With guns you can kill terrorists, with education you can kill terrorism.”
? Malala Yousafzai
“Global terrorism and India” this paper or article deals with mainly the terrorism and terrorist activities in India and around. Also the correlation between the origin, problems faced and the linear growth of the two. It also deals with various terrorist ideology and factors like Naxalism, Maoism, separatism and Islamic terror. It also gives recommendation on how the terrorism can be prevented from the route.
India as well as the world has been suffering from the shackles of terrorism for quiet a long time and the most deadliest one is the fundamental Islamic terrorism. So far the most effective devices to this problem has been counter terrorism but this should be cut of from the root itself. Apart from Islamic terrorism there is also problems related to Marxist and left wing ideology where we have seen many terrorist and related activities in the red corridor of India. There also have been a steady growth of separatist movement in Nagaland and Jammu and Kashmir. The various causes of terrorism, the origin and external factors associated with it.It also covers demographic and change, also deals with education, exploitation, economic inequality and development.
The types of terrorism Naxalism, Maoism, Separatism, Islamic terror
The problems associated with Human rights and terrorism and also deals with various acts like POTA(Prevention of terrorism activities). Terrorism is mainly associated with culture, propaganda and literacy. The fundamental terrorism can me countered with counter terrorism and Education. The other issues like Maoism and naxalism can be countered with different ideology or right-wing ideology it can also be countered with economic development and the betterment in lifestyle of labourer and poor people. There should be better laws and acts in the prevention of terrorism. There should widespread education and literacy which would help the common man to fight against the ideology of terrorism.
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
Literature review is a piece of academic writing, which includes comprehensive research or recapitulation of a particular subject in a certain field of study, due to the critical evaluation of the respective material, and has hence attained the name literature review. Recapitulation of a particular book, article etc. is also focused within the framework and study of literature review. The importance of such a tool, cannot be confined to a particular subject but rather its application, increases daily in various areas of study. The method I have anticipated for this research is qualitative
Is Terrorism Declining in India? By SOUMYA CHATRUVEDI
A. About The Article
The above Article focuses on the positive outcome of India’s counter terrorism aspects and focuses mainly on Kashmir. How the terrorism is being dealt with and also focuses on the Abrogation of article 370.The various external factors affecting the terrorism activities in jammu and kashmir especially the cross border terrorism which is being supported by Pakistan and also talks about how actually abolition of special status for state of Jammu and Kashmir has actually helped the country and which has led to the decline of terrorism activities in the state. The article also focuses on attacks like pulwama and the reaction by the government and the common people which led to increase in the counter terrorism and crackdown of Islamist groups in the country. The killing of Bjp members by the terrorist which leads to believe that there is direct conflict in ideology with the ruling brass and terrorists. The article also credits the government in the crackdown of terrorism along with the stats on the decrease of terrorism drastically. The desperation of terrorists of unable to instil fear in the local population and the attack on Indian forces and pro India kashmiris.
B. Naxalism: The Red Terror in India – Analysis by Pankaj Kumar Sani.
The above article focuses on Naxalism as a left wing terrorism and focus on its orgin and differentiates between Naxalism and Maoism. The article also has a chronological order of the casualties of both civilian and security forces from the year 2005-2018.
It also talks about the types of naxalism and the history of naxalism and how it began. It also talks about the state initiatives on the eradication of Naxalism and how development should be affected and why it should be eradicated.
C. The Geographic challenges of counter terrorism in Northeast India by Andrea Malji.
The above article focuses on the aspects of the terrain and geography and challenges it posses for counter terrorism. The article also focuses on the terror groups in India which operates in difficult terrains like the forests and hills of northeast and also the red corridor again a forested plateau. The insurgency and terrorism in kashmir which operates in cross border and mountainous peaks. It also talks about the foreign terror camp in difficult terrain region. The article also talks about the use of ieds and guerrilla warfare used by various terror groups. The article also talks about the Indian army initiative such as setting up the Jungle warfare school which focuses on fighting insurgents in jungle and forested areas. The article also focuses on terror affected regions which shares a porous border with other countries which in some case is responsible for foreign terror financing.
D. Terrorism in India & Successful Counter-Terrorism Strategies by Lt General VK Ahluwalia
The above article focuses on the strategy of counter terrorism and also about the history and orgin of terrorism right from partition to the netural stances of Maharaja Hari Singh the king of Jammu and kashmir. The author also talks about the internet which facilitates as a way of funding and recruitment and how to crackdown terrorism. He also claims that partition was the major cause of Islamic terrorism. Also talks about the reasons and orgins of terrorism. In addition it also talks about the political reasons.
E. Improving India’s Counter terrorism Policy after Mumbai-Paul Staniland.
The article focuses on the changes and shift in the counter terrorism policy in India after the Mumbai attacks and the formation of special forces in cities of importance in India and also the effective intelligence gathering by security agencies in India.
The above article is very important for my research as it deals with the changes in counter terrorism shift after Mumbai attacks and looks in effective improvement in the counter terrorism areas in India.
IV. A SHORT HISTORY OF TERRORISM AND ITS ORGINS
Terrorism is the use of violence to create a climate of fear in the minds of people and thereby to bring about a particular political objective.
Terrorism has been practiced by political organizations with both rightist and leftist objectives, by nationalistic and religious groups, by revolutionaries, and even by state institutions such as armies, intelligence services, and even police. During the 1st century, the Jewish Zealots in Judaea Province rebelled which resulted in the killing of prominent collaborators with Roman rule. In the 6 CE, according to historian Josephus, Judas of Galilee formed a small and more extreme militant offshoot of the Zealots, the Sicarii ("dagger men") or assassin.
Their efforts were also directed against Jewish "collaborators," including temple priests, Sadducees, Herodians, and other wealthy elites. According to Josephus, the Sicarii would hide short daggers under their cloaks or coats and mingle with crowds at large festivals or gatherings, stab their victims which would result in the murder, and then disappear into the panicked crowds. Their most successful assassination was the High Priest of Israel Jonathan. Adherents of other religions also resorted to these kinds of methods which might today be termed terrorism, such as the Assassins – an 11th century offshoot of a Shia Muslim sect known as the Ismailis. Like the Zealots-Sicari, the Assassins were also known for stabbing their victims (generally politicians or clerics who refused to adopt the pure version of Islam they were spreading) in broad daylight.
These Assassins’ often carried out deeds at religious sites on holy days – a tactic intended to publicize their cause and incite others to it and also to give it a religious cause or turn it into a holy war. Like many religiously inspired terrorists today, they also viewed their deaths on such operations as sacrificial and a guarantor that they would enter paradise like in islam were these terrorists would enter heaven.
In medieval or British India there was dacoit groups for whom Sacrifice was also a central element of the killings carried out by the Thugees (who bequeathed us the word ‘thug’) – an Indian religious cult who was known for ritually strangling their victims (usually travelers chosen at random) often cited it as an offering to the Hindu goddess of terror and destruction, Kali. The thugees existed from the seventh until the mid- of the19th centuries and finally eliminated during the British rule, the Thugees were infamous and responsible for as many as 1 million murders.Before the 18-19th century mostly all these terrorists used religion to justify their actions and was deeply rooted with religion.
V. RED TERROR IN INDIA(MAOISM AND NAXALISM)
Maoism is a Marxist-Leninist ideological doctrine and mechanism of revolution composed by the leader of communist China, Mao Tse Tung who believed in violence as a tool to equality. It is based on the capture of power through armed straggle or insurgency (guerrilla warfare), political mobilization and strategic alliances. Adhering to this ideological foundation, the Naxals and allied groups in India aims to overthrow the self-perspective feudal, imperial and capitalist Indian state and install a communist structure of governance in the country. The Maoist movement in India began as part of the Telangana movement itself in the 1940s. Led by the armed cadres of the Communist Party Of India (CPI), around 2500 tribal villages in Andhra Pradesh formed themselves into small and independent communes which was also part of the peasant revolution in 1948.The today's Naxal movement claims to have its root in the violent peasant uprising of the Naxalbari village in West Bengal in March 1967 the term naxalism is named after the naxalbari village as it began. Inspired by the communist revolution in China, a faction of CPI leaders led by Charu Mazumdar, Kanu Sanyal and Jangal Santhal broke from the party to form a more radical armed revolution to gain state control. Following this there was also spilt in communist party which got split into CPI and CPM which was also part of the greater Soviet-Sino split.
In a type of communist style, the leaders of these groups began setting up communes in about 2500 villages. They began recruiting educated youth from cities to become a part of their movement. They also wanted to bring about the Mao-kind of revolution — Mao or Bolshevik Revolution — which is continuing a war involving the entire population until you can change the entire system in the country. The aim of the Maoist was to bridge the gap between the exploited or marginalized classes in the society and the Indian state. Their main motive is to mobilize the mass from the socially and politically isolated downtrodden communities and take up their issues like displacement of Adivasis, human rights violations by state institutions and industrial exploitation. Whereas, the militant wing aims to create a revolutionary base area for operations in the remote and isolated areas where the government has a negligible presence, and fight a protracted war against the government. This allows the Maoists to recruit armed cadres from the same population. The government has taken the step of counter terrorism, social and economic development of these affected areas has been a effective tools as the naxal-maoist movement is loosing momentum. The Maoist-Naxal factions threatens the integrity of the country even though the ideological and militant movement to a great extent is outdated for the modern population it rising in popularity among the urban intellectual class and modern means of spreading propaganda like social and digital media still poses a threat to internal security of the country. Therefore, the government cannot lower its guard and should close the loopholes and address these issues at grass root level as it is the only viable solution.
VI. ISLAMIST MILITANCY IN INDIA
For more than two decade Islamist terrorist organizations have targeted India. Bombings have been terrorizing the sprawling metropolises of Delhi, Mumbai and Hyderabad, as well as smaller cities and towns throughout India. There have been bloodied attacks on the Red Fort in Delhi, the Indian Parliament and Kashmir’s state assembly which are some of the prominent landmarks which represent Indian democracy and these attacks are to demoralize the Indian people and their democracy. The majority of the 140 million Muslims in India have no interest in militancy or terrorism but a a small but sufficient proportion of Indian Muslims have been radicalized. Pakistan which was not able to defeat India began the sponsorship of militant groups fighting in Kashmir have allowed these organizations to build their capabilities for creating violence in the Indian heartland. India was partitioned by the British in 1947, millions of people left their homes a midst chaos and carnage—Hindus and Sikhs fled from the newly-formed Pakistan into India, and many Muslims abandoned the historic homeland in India to the newly created Pakistan. The partition witnessed large scale communal riots and massacres which led to the communal hatred in the minds of both Hindus and Muslims. The riots of the partition quickly turned into a full-scale war over the disputed princely state of Jammu and Kashmir situated between India and Pakistan which had a Muslim-majority population but was ruled by a Hindu maharaja. This war led to a foundational enmity between India and Pakistan which has continued for than six decades. For the purpose of understanding Islamist terrorism within India, the year 1989 is very important date. It was on this date serious insurgency began in Kashmir led by Kashmiris seeking independence of jammu and kashmir, the Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF). This rebellion was backed by Pakistan which was supposed to be the revenge for the liberation of Bangladesh in 1971, which began supplying arms and training in large quantities to the kashmiris and organizations fighting in Kashmir also there was a influx of foreign jihadi fighters posed as local kashmiris. Drawing on the lessons of Afghanistan in the 1980s, Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) believed that it could bleed India not in a direct war but through insurgency it is called as Bleed India with a Thousand Cuts a famous military doctrine carried out by pakistan. The JKLF not only fought for freedom but also wanted ethnic cleansing of especially Hindus thus began the exodus of Kashmiri pandits. This further led to a divide between hindus and muslims. Reacting to this incidents led to the emergence of the Hindu nationalist groups “saffron wave” reached its height in1992 and 1993 after a Hindu mob destroyed a mosque in the city of Ayodhya. They had claimed that the mosque had been built on the birthplace of lord Ram a Hindu god. The rise of Hindutva led to communal riots between hindus and muslims. The counter-insurgency strategy by India and Pakistani dissent with the JKLF’s pro-independence ideology. A more disciplined and trained, pro-Pakistan and jihadi group rose to the fore built around the infrastructure of the Jamaat-i-Islami political party—the Hizb al-Mujahidin. Hizb al-Mujahidin carried out the terrors of Islam and Kashmir in the early and mid-1990s, but largely restricted its violence to the confines of the Indian-administered state of Jammu and Kashmir. India which is a non mu slim country is a target of Islamic terrorism but it is India’s democracy and diversity that have helped it withstand many storms. The majority of India’s Muslims show no inclination to terrorism or militancy. India’s challenge is to stop further radicalization, while successfully containing militant organizations and their sympathizers.
The very definition of Terrorism have evolved through the corridors of time, and countries throughout the world have witnessed different sorts and manifestations of terrorism hence the need for laws to protect people from such violence and persecution. The only way terrorism can be actually eliminated is target the roots of it and there is no use in cutting the branches. One of the best ways to destroy terrorism is through education and wealth distribution.
Copyright © 2022 P. R. Abhimanyu Karthikeya Raja. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.