Due to the environmental threats associated with the combustion of fossil fuels, the hike in fuel prices and everyone is looking for an alternate energy sources to propel the vehicle. One such solution is the adoption of electric vehicles, which accounts for high degree of sustainability as compared to the conventional fuel vehicles. This work presents the working prototype of a Smart Electric Tractor. Description of the subsystems which includes the steering system, braking system, electric powertrain, and the chassis frame will be delineated precisely. Major focus will be to infuse IOT in dynamics and its automation. Design calculations will be carried out to obtain an optimized powertrain.
This paper will give a brief idea about the subsystems used in the project. The main idea is to emulate the same performance as of conventional tractor. To emulate such kind of performance the following subsystems are required. This project is diverged into the main system and their respective subsystems that are:
This paper shows complete overview of the entire system. Basically this system consists of three major systems that are Electrical system, Mechanical system and Electronics system. In electrical system Motor and Battery components are discussed.
The objectives taken into consideration while working on this project are:
Environmental Concerns: The conventional tractors emit fumes that are very hazardous for the user as well as for the environment. Also the depletion of fuel is itself a threat to the environment and this battery operated tractor does not raise concerns of degradation of environment.
Reducing Manpower: These tractors would reduce the work load and extra efforts of the farmer since plan is to make the tractor smart, the physical involvement of the user
Reducing Operating Cost: Unlike conventional vehicles, electric vehicles cut a considerable amount of operating cost.
III. SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Fig 3.1 Shows the overview of block diagram of the system. The system consists of three major subsystem. Electrical, Mechanical and Electronics. Electrical subsystem consist of motor, battery, motor controller, BMS. Mechanical subsystem consist of chassis, drivetrain and tyres.
Fig. 3.2 shows the electrical subsystem schematic diagram The power source here is the grid power we receive. The charger symbolises the charging path from the grid to the battery pack. The charging power is monitored by the Battery Management System(BMS) and thereby given to battery pack. The battery delivers power to motor and controller. The controller gives signals to control the motor functioning’s. The motor then powers the differentials for propulsion.
Low weight and excessive energy density is a prime attention in electro mobility. The maximum not unusual place traction vehicles for car packages are synchronous vehicles or induction vehicles while synchronous vehicles are favoured due to their benefit concerning energy density and weight. But every of the motor principles has its blessings and disadvantages. With this adaption it's miles viable to lessen the load and because of this defining parameter the induction motor has in precis extra blessings as compared with the synchronous motor. Therefore it could be the higher desire for electro mobility. After comparing Power to weight ratio, starting torque, Efficiencies of motors at different load, Motor controller cost, and cost of various motors including DC Brushed, DC Brushless, Induction motor, Synchronous Motor and SRM motor, Design D 3-ph Induction motor according to NEMA standards turned into maximum appropriate option.
Because the terminal voltage of Lithium Phosphate primarily based totally cells is 80 % to 300 better than different normally to be had chemistries, cells using lithium provide a far better electricity density, each gravimetric and volumetric than all different non-exotic, rechargeable battery chemistries. While the amp-hour ability of the numerous lithium cells is comparable to NiMH and NiCd, the electricity density of lithium is a good deal better because of the better terminal voltage. This function is the overriding purpose for the arrival of lithium primarily based totally batteries in EVs in current years
VI. FUTURE SCOPES
Efficient Transmission System: Transmission system can further be improved by implementing more gears of the ratio 15:1 or 10:1.
Solar Implementation: Solar can be installed to charge LV system of the tractor.
Cost Reduction: Cost reduction can be implied by using other battery chemistries which are cheaper.
The aim of this project was to overcome flaws in conventional tractors and to give a contribution in greener, cleaner and economically stable country. To the reduce fuel consumption, electric tractors are important for farming. It operates on batteries, making farming easy and economical. Even as farming income is to some extent boosted by the use of technology, more can be done to lessen the burden on the farmers.
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