Authors: Shavkat Turabovich Nishanov, Nasiba Niyazova
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In the field of modern education, the Russian language teaching system is also developing as a result of the progressive achievements of the 21st century. This article outlines the essential features and substantiated results of using distance learning and its means in the system of teaching the Russian language in the field of education in Uzbekistan. The advantages of forming the process of continuous education on a theoretical and practical basis are also presented.
The field of education is a continuous process that includes new methods, approaches, techniques and tools to keep up with innovations or news. The use of new tools and techniques in the process of teaching and learning the Russian language is aimed at making this process as convenient as possible in the interests of teachers and students. Also, Russian language teachers know that the language teaching system is an interactive process in which both the teacher and the students must work together to achieve their goal. The widespread use of computers and the Internet has made distance learning easier and faster, and today virtual schools and virtual universities provide complete study programs online. It should be recognized that the sphere of education in the world is rapidly changing due to new methods and means used in practice, the same thing is happening in the system of teaching the Russian language in Uzbekistan. In this article, we highlight step by step the most important factors of the innovative system of teaching and learning foreign languages ??in education in Uzbekistan in accordance with the theoretical and practical basis of our study. Since the formation of a continuous educational process in the field of education in practice is of great importance, the factors of "continuity" and "connectivity" are the most important basis for creating a real full-fledged educational process in practice. In accordance with this, the entire system of teaching the Russian language should be formed on the basis of these two factors in order to prepare the real future personnel of Uzbekistan, able to compete with their foreign colleagues, meeting the requirements of our time and state.
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
Let's start with the fact that before creating a "distance learning" process, the teacher should consider the following factors: teaching and learning the language plays an important role in the process of modern education. In other words, modern students (schoolchildren or university students) use various modern information technologies, such as smartphones, tabloids, PCs, laptops, etc. educational institutions, schoolchildren, students spend most of their time on various mobile games or social networking services (SNS) and instant messengers. Thus, these funds should be used to teach them foreign languages ??in a correct and efficient way. In addition, Russian language teachers must learn to use modern sources of language teaching and learning based on new methods, materials and techniques, which means that we, as teachers of foreign languages, must use what we have to achieve our learning goal. foreign language. target language is perfect.
Psychological readiness of students - this factor means that before and during foreign language teaching, teachers should pay attention to the age and interests of students, which we want to emphasize that the teacher can test students using innovative tools such as Google Forms to find out their interests and preferences. Focusing on such factors may take additional time, but will lead us to the expected results.
A variety of sources for learning Russian - you can see that most language classes can seem boring to language learners due to the use of the same sources in the process; however, current students cannot get used to this state. As a consequence of this, the time has come to use innovative means and sources in the process of teaching the language. Since our research is related to the application of innovations in teaching the Russian language, the teacher can use infographics, videos, audio files to arouse students' interest in the distance form of language learning. For example, we used excerpts from famous films, cartoons in the pre- and post-stages of our lessons to introduce new topics, engage them in conversations with each other in discussions, and so on.
In addition, students in universities note that lecture materials, such as theoretical grammar, phonetics, and stylistics, are much more difficult for them to understand. For a practical solution to this problem, we have planned the production of various forms of educational materials for students, such as infographic materials, video files, which present basic scientific information in a simplified form. The atmosphere of teaching and learning the Russian language - the environment for teaching and learning the language is also the most significant factor in the process of modern education.
Innovative tasks and activities - as the educational system becomes innovative, it is natural that the tasks of teaching and learning the Russian language also become innovative.
Innovative assessment - assessment of language learners in an innovative way makes the process understandable and fair for both the teacher and the students. Accordingly, learners can be assessed daily or weekly and their results presented on social media platforms and tools as modern distance learning tools. Taking into account all the most significant factors mentioned above on the formation and innovation of distance education in the field of education in Uzbekistan, it can be summarized that modern information technologies and tools should be used to give the process factors of real continuity and connectedness, since this is a system that requires, so that everything works systematically to effectively carry out its tasks in practice.
When we go to class, students get an idea of ??who we are as a result of how we look (how we dress, how we present ourselves) and how we behave and react to what is happening. They note, consciously or subconsciously, whether we are always the same or whether we can be flexible, depending on what is happening at a particular moment in the lesson.
As we have said, teachers, like any other group of people, have individual differences. However, one of the things that perhaps makes us different from some other professions is that we become different people, in a sense, when we are in front of a class, from the people we are in other situations, such as at home or on party. Everyone changes these roles to some extent in their daily lives, but for teachers it is especially important who we are (or appear to be) at work.
Several years ago, in preparation for a presentation to colleagues, we recorded interviews with a large number of teachers and students. We asked them, "What makes a good teacher?" and was interested in their instant responses. A number of people we interviewed and answered spoke about the character of the teacher. As one of them told us: “I like a teacher who has his own personality and does not hide it from the students, so he is not only a teacher, but also a person – and this manifests itself in the lesson.
Discussing teacher personality is difficult for two reasons: First, there is no ideal teacher personality. Some teachers are effective because they are "larger than life", while others convince with their quiet authority. But another problem, as I think, said the respondent in the comment above, is that students want not only to see the professional who came to teach them, but also to see the “person”.
What often distinguishes one teacher from another is how he reacts to various events in the classroom as the lesson progresses. This is important because, no matter how well prepared we are, the chances are high that things will not go quite according to plan. Unexpected events happen in the classroom, and part of a teacher's skill is deciding what the reaction should be when they happen.
Good teachers are able to perceive the unexpected and use it to their advantage and that of their students. This is especially important when the learning outcomes we have planned look like they can't be successful because of what's going on. We need to be flexible enough to work with this and change the destination accordingly (if needed) or find some other way to get there. Or perhaps we should decide to continue what we are doing, despite the fact that what we imagined should have continued. In other words, teachers must be able to "think on the fly" and act quickly and decisively at different points in the lesson. When students see that they can do this, their confidence in their teachers increases significantly. Part of the art of being a good teacher is being able to take on several different roles in the classroom, depending on what the students are doing. If, for example, the teacher always acts as a controller, standing in front of the class, dictating everything that happens and being the center of attention, there will be little chance for students to take more responsibility for their own learning, in other words, so that they have freedom will. Being a supervisor is possible, for example, to explain grammar and present other information, but it is less effective, for example, for activities when students work together on a project. In such situations, we may need to prompt, encourage students, push them to achieve more by providing them with information or words to help them move forward. In other cases, we may need to act as providers of feedback (helping students evaluate their work) or as graders (telling students how well they did or giving them grades, etc.). We must also be able to function as a source (for language information, etc.) when students need to consult with us, and sometimes as a language teacher (i.e. a consultant who is responsive to what the student is doing and gives advices).
Children, perhaps more than any other category of students, enjoy pretending. They feel at home in imaginary worlds where they can role-play, engage in "pretend" activities, dress up, and become a different person for a short time. However, teachers of Russian at this level usually face two challenges. On the other hand, they need to develop a repertoire of specific activities that children enjoy: if this is not done, chaos or boredom will ensue. If we offer carefully structured sessions with clearly articulated educational and language goals, we think the article brings together a set of ideas and activities that the busy teacher of young children can use to meet the needs of her class. The use of songs, rhymes and chants, the making and use of puppets, and culminating in a slightly more complex role-play and simulation. As the demand for Russian for younger students continues to grow, so does the demand for reliable and stimulating learning materials. They are especially useful in classrooms of younger children who may not be able to reproduce much of their own language. Rhythm and melody make it easier to learn and remember the language, while movements and gestures help to illustrate the meaning. Songs speak to the entire child through visual, auditory and kinesthetic (physical) channels. Songs, rhymes and chants can be used as first steps towards more independent acting. By giving children words, we give them the opportunity to concentrate on expressing feelings and character through body language and gestures. Later, when they become more confident and aware of their body's capabilities, they will be able to use their own words. Both teachers and children differ in the degree of control they want to have over activities. As a teacher, it is sometimes difficult to let children have free rein in what they do, and some children find it difficult to cope with complete free rein in making decisions. You need to decide what balance is comfortable for you and move towards it step by step. They combine visual, auditory, and kinesthetic (physical) sensations in ways that are hard to resist. In role plays and improvisations, children are asked to take on a role and act out a situation using whatever language they have. Roles can be characters that children recognize from their daily lives (doctor and patient, parent and child, bus driver and passenger) or fantasy characters (princess and dragon, space visitors to Earth, zoo animals). At higher levels, role play can be used to explore situations that children might encounter in real life: solving dilemmas, setting goals, sharing resources, creating and enforcing rules, etc. This kind of "educational" role play allows children to explore problems are not threatening and can lead to interesting discussions. A role play can be quite simple, requiring little preparation and few props, or more complex, requiring you to spend time preparing the language and setting up the situation. Two or three children or the whole class can participate in role-playing games. There are usually three stages of role playing or improvisation in the classroom. At the first stage, the educator prepares the children for the role-play by establishing the situation and making sure that the children speak the required language. In the second stage, the children role-play and the teacher observes them, taking notes in preparation for the third stage. At this point, it is important not to intervene unless absolutely necessary. After the role play is over, the teacher organizes reflection and feedback on the process (how the children did the task) and the outcome (how it turned out). Most role-playing games are designed for the whole class to work together. The classroom is the place for the script and each child takes on a role: they tend to be deeply involved in the action and overall there is a good atmosphere. Mixed ability classes also respond well, as each child can use the language they are comfortable with: those with more language resources can have more complex conversations, while those who feel less confident can stay with the main language. Some are suitable for children with limited knowledge of the Russian language, and there are others that will encourage higher level children to be creative and use the language they know in an unpredictable situation.
It was revealed that the use of computer and information technologies in the training of future teachers is an irreversible process that is associated with updating the content, forms and methodological principles of education. The use of computer and information technologies in the classroom when teaching teachers is advisable if it provides a higher learning efficiency than the use of traditional means, and also if the teacher uses them professionally. In the learning process, computer and information technology tools should be used: when studying and consolidating new material, which contributes to a better assimilation of information by students, increases visibility, the possibility of a versatile consideration of phenomena or processes, broadens their horizons. methods of presenting information, saving time on its presentation interactive multimedia lectures (slide lecture, video lecture), electronic textbook; in practical work - as a means of finding and studying the necessary material, developing skills and abilities for independent problem solving (using Power Point, Corel, Adobe Photoshop programs); when controlling knowledge, which makes it possible to increase its objectivity (test programs for educational purposes); when organizing and conducting Internet conferences, seminars, round tables for the exchange of various ideas on topics of interest, problems, analysis and study of international experience; At the same time, the main task of a higher educational institution at the present stage is to train specialists who are able to respond non-standard, flexibly and in a timely manner to changes taking place in the world.
To improve the efficiency and quality of teacher training, it is necessary to organize the educational process with the active position of students in obtaining new knowledge, which creates conditions for creativity in learning. The success of achieving this goal depends not only on what is acquired, but also on how it is acquired: individually or collectively, on the basis of attention, perception, memory or the entire personal potential of the future specialist, through reproductive or active methods of influence. education. The direct involvement of students in active learning and cognitive activity is associated with the use of techniques and methods that have received the generalized name "active teaching methods". The emergence and development of active methods is due to the fact that new tasks have arisen for teaching: not only to give students knowledge, but also to ensure the formation and development of cognitive interests and abilities, creative thinking, skills and independent mental work. It is this form of interaction and communication that teaches future teachers to formulate thoughts in a professional language, to speak orally, to listen, hear and understand others, to reason correctly and reasonedly. Joint work requires not only individual responsibility and independence, but also self-organization of the team, exactingness, mutual responsibility and discipline. Based on the analysis of scientific sources, we note that it is necessary to make changes in the conduct of practical classes and the organization of students' activities, which will contribute to the development of creative thinking of the future specialist, improve the ability to find the necessary information, creatively interpret and apply it in specific conditions. We believe that the central point in the organization of education is the search and development of such forms and technologies, in which the emphasis is on the independence of students in the process of learning activities. To develop independence and initiative in practical and laboratory classes, you can use the project method with students, using programs such as Excel, Power Point, Corel and the Internet. The project method is very widely used in the educational process of higher and secondary educational institutions, but it happens that in practice we are talking about working on a specific topic or just about group work. In fact, if this is a method, then it involves a certain set of educational and cognitive techniques that allow solving the problem as a result of independent actions of students and involving the presentation of these results.
The way we act when we supervise a class is very different from the behavior we listen to and advise we exhibit when we teach students or respond to a presentation or written piece (which, again, is different from how we evaluate a work) . Thus, part of our personality as a teacher is our ability to fulfill all these roles at different times, but with the same thoroughness and ease, in whatever role we participate. This flexibility will help us simplify the many different steps and aspects of learning. Teaching Russian, especially to those for whom it is not native, is not an easy task. This is a lengthy process that can be influenced by various factors. However, an effective teacher is one who knows what to teach, how to teach and how to respond to any educational situation. To teach Russian as a foreign language, it is necessary, first of all, to consider students as social beings, since each student is a person who is characterized by personality and social traits that can influence the learning process. People learn languages when they have the opportunity to understand a language and work with it in a context that they understand and find interesting. Students master the Russian language by working with materials that are interesting and relevant to them and that they can use in their professional activities or further education. The more students pay attention to the meaning of the language they hear or read, the more successful they are; the more they have to focus on linguistic input or isolated language structures, the less motivated they are to attend classes.
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Copyright © 2022 Shavkat Turabovich Nishanov, Nasiba Niyazova. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.