Authors: Er. Ajay Kumar, Er. Abhay Dhiman, Er. Chetan Kumar, Dr. Devender Sharma
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The approximate population (2020) of the Nerchowk area is about 52944, an area of 80.26 km², and a population density of 659 people per km². Sample Collection Sites at Nerchowk Region. 31°36\'24\"N, 76°54\'51\"E longitude and latitude of Nerchowk. The present cross-sectional study is focused on measuring the quality of drinking water in areas of Nerchowk region, District – Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, India, and its effects on human health as told by the people living in these areas. Various analyses including physical, chemical, and microbiological assessments were carried out on the water samples collected from the villages. The present thesis aimed to assess and compare the water quality with WHO standards and its related health effects on residents of the Nerchowk Area. 30 sample sites are chosen nearby the Nerchowk area and water samples have been taken from each area. Data collection is based on the laboratory analysis of water samples. The study was carried out over 12 months that is, August 2021 to July 2022.
The summary of the literature indicates that much research work is done by experts in the area of Physico-Chemical and Biological Analysis of Water and the Effect of Contamination on Residents. Through it, we come to know that many testing and analysis results for studying the effect of water contamination have already existed. It is concluded from the literature that to take care of the health of human beings water analysis is very much important. Very less research work is done around north India and especially in Himachal Pradesh state. Very less research work on Physico-Chemical and Biological Analysis of Water is present in the Himachal Pradesh state. Proper investigation of the physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters of the water should be done in the Himachal region so that people can ensure water quality.
II. GAPS IN EXISTING LITERATURE
III. PROBLEM FORMULATION and Objectives
Various analyses, parameters, testing techniques, and behavior of the water have been studied in the detail. There is a great requirement for water treatment or purification in some regions on a priority basis. Pure water for household purposes is essential for a healthy life. Separate study about the physical, chemical, and microbiological behavior of water is available up to a great extent. But the combined and cross-sectional study is limited and especially for developing countries like India. Keeping in view the gaps in existing research work a combined study for a specific area can be performed to test water quality and analyze the effect of contaminants on the health of the people.
The goal of this study is to look at the link between drinking water quality and human health and longevity. The aims and objectives of the present study are as follows: -
The objective of this thesis was to perform the analysis of the water in the Nerchowk region on the physical, chemical, and biological aspects and to check the effect of the contamination on the health of the residents. In the light of the collection of data, findings, and analysis, the following inferences can be made-
VI. SCOPE OF FUTURE WORK
For a detailed analysis of water quality in the Nerchowk Area, the monitoring and analysis should be carried out for a longer period. The minimum time for such monitoring should be one year to have a series of data or trends to confirm the study's reliability. Standardization of the sampling locations would also help in making the obtained data more comparable with scientific findings. The analysis of water parameters should be analyzed in advanced analytical techniques such as Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) in comparison to FAAS in the future. Besides the chemical and heavy metal analysis, the microorganisms (protozoa parasite, algae, bacteria, and viruses), radionuclides (radioactive materials such as uranium), and disinfectants should be analyzed using advanced techniques such as ICP-MS.
This study seeks to determine how well Ner-Chowk potable water supply conforms with state and national drinking water standards. Questions were posed to residents who are receiving their primary drinking water supply from the IPH Department or any other sources. To analyze any problem in the water chemical analysis should be done. Effect of water contamination in agriculture field should be carried out. Toxicological studies should be carried out to determine the associated potential risks. Domestic waste and agricultural activities affect groundwater quality so the monitoring of fertilizers and pesticides is needed. Programs should be implemented to monitor the bore wells and hand pumps exceeding the limitation of guidelines All public supplies should be checked for microbial safety. Toxic material must be treated chemically and converted into harmless materials. People awareness campaigning should be organized/implemented by the government and non-government organizations. For better health measures bottled water should be checked from time to time. For a detailed analysis of water quality in the Nerchowk Area, the monitoring and analysis should be carried out for a longer period. The minimum time for such monitoring should be one year to have a series of data or trends to confirm the study's reliability. Standardization of the sampling locations would also help in making the obtained data more comparable with scientific findings.
The analysis of water parameters should be analyzed in advanced analytical techniques such as Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) in comparison to FAAS in the future. Besides the chemical and heavy metal analysis, the microorganisms (protozoa parasite, algae, bacteria, and viruses), radionuclides (radioactive materials such as uranium), and disinfectants should be analyzed using advanced techniques such as ICP-MS. This study seeks to determine how well Ner-Chowk potable water supply conforms with state and national drinking water standards. Questions were posed to residents who are receiving their primary drinking water supply from the IPH Department or any other sources. To analyze any problem in the water chemical analysis should be done.
This thesis is limited primarily to data collected in the Nerchowk region only. However, results of water quality analyses conducted in some other locations are also included. The limitations of the study can be improved by analyzing more samples throughout all districts of Himachal Pradesh instead of the small region like Nerchowk.
From the analysis of data gathered from literature, the internet, and various journals on physical, chemical, and biological analysis of the water, as well as various analyses performed in this study in the Nerchowk area we concluded all samples collected from various sites are safe for drinking. All samples collected are tested chemically, physically, and bacteriologically for the various possible aspects and they are found all quantities are under permissible limits and water is safe for household tasks. 1) The taste and color of water samples are agreeable. 2) The odor of all samples is marked as odorless. 3) No residual chlorine is found. 4) No arsenic traces are found. 5) Calcium and magnesium values are within permissible limits. 6) Hardness and calcium hardness are in an acceptable range. 7) Alkalinity, Chloride values, TDS, conductivity, turbidity, and PH values are in permissible ranges.
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