Authors: Abhirat Singh, Abhishek Kumar Gond, Adarsh Bhaskar, Aditya Verma, Mr. Avinash Kumar Upadhyay
Certificate: View Certificate
This study\'s primary goal is to carry out the design of a sewage treatment facility for Lucknow\'s Virat Khand Sector 1. due to constant domestic and municipal sewage will be produced at a faster rate as the population grows. All species become sick from the foul stench that sewage produces. To prevent this however, appropriate treatment is required prior to disposal on land in order to utilise the treated water and avoid dumping sewage directly into natural resources, which ultimately lowers the demand for fresh water as a whole. Its goal is to generate solid waste and fluid waste that are safe for the environment and can be recycled or disposed of. In a single day, how much sewage was produced overall, based on the anticipated population of Virat Khand Sector 1 over the following 20 years? As a result, the sewage generation in the Virat Khand area is the main topic of this study, and a sewage treatment plant is constructed in accordance with it. It is suggested that the different parts of the sewage treatment plant be designed taking into account the various standards and allowable limits of treated sewage water. Screening, a grit chamber, a main sedimentation tank, a biological reactor, a secondary clarifier, an activated sludge tank, and drying beds are some of the parts of a sewage treatment plant.
Wastewater is produced when water is used for industrial, commercial, or residential purposes. Municipal wastewater, which is also known as sewage, consists of all water and waste collected from various sources like drains, sinks, toilets, and gutters. It may also include rain and storm water. This wastewater contains particles that are typically derived from feces, food waste, personal hygiene products, cleaning agents, cosmetics, medicines, and other items. These particles may be dissolved, suspended, or floating in the wastewater and are separated or filtered out as sludge through treatment. Industrial wastewater, on the other hand, contains chemicals or substances specific to the manufacturing process of the industry producing it.
In the treatment process, wastewater is referred to as influent when it flows into a treatment unit, and as effluent when it flows out of the unit after treatment.
Objective of sewage water treatment plant are :
There are many advantages of a sewage water treatment plant, some of which are:
Environmental Protection: Sewage water treatment plants play a vital role in protecting the environment by treating wastewater before it is discharged into water bodies. This helps to reduce pollution, protect aquatic life, and prevent the spread of waterborne diseases.
There are several potential disadvantages of sewage water treatment plants, including:
D. Study Area
For our research work on sewage wastewater treatment in Virat Khand sector 1 of Gomtinagar Lucknow as a study area and visited there to carry on the research.
In this small area of 300m2, there was total of approx. 330 houses has been estimated.
Following data has been collected from there:
10805 people per km2
Nearest airport & distance (Aerial)
Chaudhary Charan Singh International Airport, 13.54 Km
Nearest Railway station
Gomtinagar, 1.3 Km
Virat Khand -1 is developing on a fast pace as the population density is so high there, So there will be more generation of domestic and municipal sewage. So there is need of construction of sewage treatment plant with a view of sufficient capacity to treat the
sewage. Its objective is to produce an environmentally safe fluid waste and solid wastesuitable for disposal or reuse.
A facility called a sewage water treatment plant is made to clean sewage and wastewater before it is released into the environment or used again. The wastewater is treated at the plant using a combination of physical, chemical, and biological procedures to get rid of pathogens, nutrients, and organic materials. The cleaned water can then be utilized for irrigation or other non-potable uses before being released into surrounding waterways. Untreated sewage can include dangerous contaminants that can contaminate water supplies and constitute a risk to human health and aquatic life, making sewage treatment plants essential for preserving public health and the environment.
II. LITRATURE REVIEW
A. Activated Sludge Process
Activated-sludge technique, a sewage-treatment process in which sludge, the amassed, microbe’s rich deposits of settling tanks and basins, is seeded into the approaching wastewater and the blend agitated for a few hours (4-8 hours) within the sight of an adequate air supply. Suspended solids and numerous organic solids are adsorbed by the sludge, while organic matter is oxidized by the microorganisms. The measures of air and sludge utilized can be differed to control the level of treatment got. The sludge is then isolated out in a settling tank.
Activated sludge plant involves:
a. Physical Treatment: At this stage, the effluent is being purified physically. Methods like screening, sedimentation, and skimming are used to remove solids. This technique makes no use of chemicals. One of the most common physical methods for treating wastewater is sedimentation, which involves suspending insoluble or heavy particles from wastewater. Once the insoluble material has fallen to the bottom, you can separate the clear water. Another good physical water treatment technique is aeration. This process involves passing air through the water in order to provide oxygen to it. Filtration is the third strategy, and it is utilized to get rid of all contaminants. Specific filters can be employed to pass the wastewater and separate the contaminants and insoluble particles it contains. Sand is the most popular type of filter.
b. Biological Treatment: A number of biological processes break down the organic materials in sewage, such as food, oil, and human waste. This uses a range of biological processes to break down organic materials in wastewater, including soap, human waste, oils, and food. Organic compounds in wastewater are broken down by microorganisms during biological treatment.
c. Aerobic processes: As organic materials are digested by bacteria, carbon dioxide is produced that plants can use. In this process, oxygen is used.
d. Fermentation: Waste is fermented at a specific temperature during anaerobic processes. Oxygen is not necessary for the anaerobic process. Composting is an aerobic wastewater treatment technique that entails adding sawdust or other carbon sources to the wastewater.
e. Chemical Treatment: As the name suggests, this therapy makes use of chemicals in water. Chlorine is a common oxidizing agent used to get rid of germs that pollute water and cause it to deteriorate. Another oxidizing agent used to clean wastewater is ozone. In order to neutralize water and return it to its normal pH of 7, an acid or base must be added. Pure water is produced when chemicals prevent bacteria from developing in water.
f. Sludge treatment: It is a method of solid-liquid separation in which the solid phase must include the least amount of moisture-remaining material and the separated liquid phase must contain the least number of solid particle residues. An example of this is the dewatering of sludge from industrial wastewater or sewage plants, where the quality determines the pollution load that is returned to the treatment facility and the residual moisture in the dewatered solids determines disposal costs. Both should be minimized.
IV. FUTURE SCOPE OF STUDY
Future Scope of Project
The future scope of the project on sewage wastewater treatment plant is significant as the world's population continues to grow, and urbanization continues to expand. With these changes, there is a growing demand for water resources, which places a strain on our natural sources of freshwater. Therefore, sewage water treatment plants are becoming increasingly important in meeting the demand for clean water.
Some of the future areas of development in sewage water treatment plants include:
Overall, there are several areas of development in sewage water treatment plants that will shape the future of this field. These developments will help to improve the efficiency, sustainability, and effectiveness of wastewater treatment, ensuring that we have access to clean water resources for years to come.
A successful technical project involves the integration of various knowledge from different field. This is an attempt to combine several aspects of environmental, biological, part of chemical and mostly civil engineering from which the knowledge were acquired. Since in Metro Sattelite, Palasuni, due to increase in population in recent days and looking on the future aspect, it was quite necessary to construct a sewage treatment plant. The plant is designed perfectly to meet needs and demands of approximate 4000 population with a very large period of time. The project consist of the design of complete Sewage treatment plant components starting from receiving chamber, screening, grit chamber, skimming tank, sedimentation tank, secondary clarifier, activated sludge tank and drying bed for sewage.
 Puspalatha and Kalpana, “Design approach for sewage treatment plant: A case study of srikakulam greater municipality”,India, volume no.12.  Aswathy. M, Hemapriya, “Analysis and design of Sewage Treatment Plant of Apartments in Chennai”, India, Vol no13,2017.  Ms.S.Ramya, Aswani Krishna, AthulyaBabu, HarshaK.Rajan, “Design of Sewage Treatment plant and characterstics of sewage”, 2015.  Swati Shree Samal, “Design of Sewage Treatment Plant”, vol 13, 2016.  Gorani M.A, Jordan Ebraheem, “Location optrimization of waste water treatment plant using GIS’ A case study in Umm Durmain/Karary”, USA, 2012.  D.S.Munasinghe, P.G.R.N.I. Pussella, M.D.E.K, Gunathilaka, “Integration of GIS and AHP for suitable site selection of Domestic waste water Treatment Plant: A case study of Akkaraipattu Municipal Council”, Srilanka, 2015.  BharathiBattu, Prof. Murthy Polasa, “Design of Sewage Treatment Plant for a Gated community”, Hyderabad, India, Vol no3, 2014.  Garg S.K, ?Sewage Disposal and Air Pollution Engineering, 23rd ed., Khanna Publisher, November 2010  Karia G.L & Christian R.A, ?Wastewater Treatment Concept and Design Approach, 6th printing January2012, PHI Learning Private Limited,2012.  Punmia B.C. and Ashok Jain, Environmental Engineering,?Waste Water Engineering. vol. 2, 2nded., Laxmi Publication.  C.C. Lee, S.D. Lin, Handbook of Environmental Engineering Calculations\",2nd ed, McGraw Hill, 2007,Pages 1.418-1.510  KarrmanE. Strategies towardssustainable wastewater management.Urban Water. 2001;3(1-2):63-72  Nuhoglu A, Yildiz E, Keskinler B, et al.Wastewater characterization and performance upgrading of a domestic wastewater treatment plant: The Erzincan case. Int J Environ Pollut.2004;21(5):440-56.
Copyright © 2023 Abhirat Singh, Abhishek Kumar Gond, Adarsh Bhaskar, Aditya Verma, Mr. Avinash Kumar Upadhyay. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.