Authors: Abhinandan Sarkar, Suryashree Pandey Sarkar
Certificate: View Certificate
Additive manufacturing colloquially known as 3 dimensional printing or 3D printing has evolved to a futuristic state since its emergence around 1987. Industries have imbibe the idea and technology and laid down a low cost production path for the future. Customization and tailored fit products for the customer has made the technology of 3d printing more appreciable for the youth with innovation. The technology allows to build the prototype from a digital CAD file. Engineers and innovators can now successfully visualize and get an idea of how there proposed design looks in reality. Different printing techniques have been innovated since its inception in the market. Application of the manufacturing process has been increasing day by day. In this article we seek to explore the printing material used, the process from designing to prototyping and the various application of additive manufacturing.
Traditional manufacturing process replicates the manufacturing in large scale , with huge machineries and not so cost effective for innovative parts. Manufacturing industries are always looking for changes and better productivity, prototype designers always seek to visualize and feel there design in a physical structure. This came to an end in the year 1987  when the first 3d printing with stereo-lithography technique was used.
The technology kept on developing ever since. In 1991 , three more technologies came in to market namely fused deposition modelling(FDM) , solid ground curing(SGC) and laminated object manufacturing(LOM). The cost of absorbing and facilitating the technology kept on decreasing and it started to reach the young innovative aspirants for building startups and entrepreneurship background. In 1992, Selective laser sintering process came into existence and further more made a revolution. Traditional manufacturing process which mainly used subtractive method of manufacturing has been replaced by the new technology of 3d printing .
Additive manufacturing system has a versatile technology platform which process a graphically made computer aided design (CAD) to a three dimensional physically felt structure. Customized complex design have become easy to get prototyped. The cost of 3d printer has lowered to around 15000 INR. A new technology have also come with cheaper cost known as 3d pen with around 2000INR . Additive manufacturing process have revolutionized many industrial sectors, primarily a great prospect in healthcare industry followed by defense organizations, aircraft, architecture, civil prototyping, automobile, food processing, electrochemical, renewable energy and many more. Another advancement has sneak peeked into the manufacturing technique, the IOT based cloud controlled platform manufacturing framework. Empowering the industrial IOT based manufacturing units.  Manufacturers have shorten there supply chain and transportation cost by the involvement of this decentralized additive manufacturing technique.
Despite of uncountable prospects in different fields of the industry, it has yield many disadvantages in the field of employment, economical backset of the country and many materials those are used for prototyping can harm humanity in a long run. Issues in criminal activities have been noticed by grasping the digital files of the design.
In short with the advancement of technology, manufacturing of complex design have become easy but can also bring harm to humanity if not kept under continuous monitoring and surveillance.
A. To know the different material used as filament in 3d printer.
B. Step by step process from designing to prototyping.
C. Application in different industries.
III. DIVERGENT ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING MATERIALS
Plastics offer a variety of advantage in additive manufacturing industry. It is made of semi- synthetic compounds which exhibits the property of being malleable. This compounds are derived from renewable material known as polylactic acid popularly known as PLA. Due to there low cost ,water resistance and ease of manufacturing they are used in multi sector of the manufacturing industry.
Many powdered materials can be given in few specific type of 3d printers. The material is melted and distributed over the desired printed area till the required thickness, texture and patterns are not achieved.
This are commonly used through a process called DMLS (direct metal laser sintering). Giving a new scope of manufacturing in the field of aerospace , automobile and jewellery 3d printed metals have proven to be strong and ultimate usage of manufacturing. Printing of metals has given superior strength to conventional parts. 3d printing of stainless steel(utensils, cookware) , bronze(vases & other fixtures) , gold (ornaments) ,nickel(coins) aluminum and titanium has reduced the hardship of manufacturing. Mixing titanium and nickel a new end material is produced known as nitinol which withstand considerable flexible and one of the strongest material used in additive manufacturing.
Metal printing requires temperature around 190?C – 220?C.. Advances in process has paves towards Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) and Laser Power Fusion (LPF) to fabricate stainless steels.
D. Soluble Materials
Many complex models need support for their over hanged parts and for that it should be get printed with lesser fill density as these parts will get removed after finishing, but this affect the finishing surface and texture of the model. To overcome this problem water soluble materials are used with different materials to print the support parts ,so that it can be easily removed off. Two main types of material are HIPS & PVA. Another material BVOH ( butene diol vinyl alcohol copolymer) is also becoming popular in dual extruder printers.
IV. PROCESS – DESIGNING TO PROTOTYPING
The designing process starts with framing out the need of the part or product . Then starting with different 3d designing software like autocad , fusion 360 or at the beginner level with tinkercad. Once the designing is completed it is saved in .stl or .obj file format and sent for slicing. Slicer is a type of software which helps in simulation of the printing process. It shows the different dimensions of the 3d printer and with respect to that the size of the to be printed part. It shows different setting option like fill density , wall thickness, base thickness, support fill density , way of printing (grid or linear), bed adhesion (brim or raft), retraction speed , retracted filament amount, temperature of extruder nozzle , bed temperature and many more.
Once every setting is done as per the need, the slicing software eg. Cura shows the amount of time and filament needed to get the printing done. After confirming , it is needed to save the file in .gcode file format and uploaded to the printer or external drives for printing. Before starting of the printing process we need to check for the proper mobility of the filament and regular alignment of the printing bed with the extruder outlet point. Once every steps are followed , it gets printed and we get our desired product. All the necessary steps are pictorially represented below with the final 3d printed product and showing its usability. Fig. 1 shows the transparent and solid view of the design on workplane. Fig. 2 shows the slicing of the design with few printable settings ,time needed and amount of material to be used. Fig.3 shows the layer wise printing of the object. Fig. 4 shows the final 3d printed object, with its practical usability. Many machine learning algorithms and tools has been introduced in advancement of the technology to maintain the quality and framework of the manufacturing technique.
V. APPLICATIONS OF DIFFERENT MATERIALS
With the development of manufacturing industries, additive manufacturing or commonly stated as 3d printing technology has stepped into our daily short term manufacturing sector. Replacing the old school or traditional manufacturing techniques,3d printing techniques has helped many young enthusiasts to design and implement their ideas and portray their creativity to the manufacturing industry. In this section a very brief and short application of different materials are discussed.    
Coming to the end, from the inception of additive manufacturing and the day we are in now, it has developed a long way. From household to commercial industry, it has entered every field of engineering, taking place from mechanical , civil , architecture and today electrically active materials are getting developed for different electronic and electrical projects. 3d printing has also entered the field of food processing engineering, medical and textile or fashion products. Since lower cost , mobile, portable ,efficient machines have been developed, additive production of new designs and products are also growing in a good pace. Increase of employability skills and formation of startups in youth is also prevailing. With this the development does not end, researches has been done more, and development of smart nanocomposites and alloys has emerged, paving a path towards 4D printing technology.. Current researches and explorations are also foot stepping on Laser Aided Additive Manufacturing techniques(LAAM), Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing . Thus to conclude 3d printing technology has proven to be cost effective and easy to use for the future technology.
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