Authors: Dr. Ashish Kant Chaudhari
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Tribes have a diverse way of living with a distinct traditional pattern. Maximum numbers of tribal communities lived in Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh Bihar Orissa (Gonds, Dhuriya, Nayak, Tharu, Shariya, Baiga, Panika, Agaria, Bhotia etc) They live a despondent life without enough possessions and have a lot of issues and problem such as economic problem, literacy, unemployment, housing problem etc., a lot of informative problem are faced by tribal communities. Hence government is trying his best to resolve all these problems with the implementation of new schemes & Problems. This study concentrations on the made by government schemes for upliftment of the tribes and deliberates the major challenges to solve the educational problem.
New researches are always required to be conducted continuously to identify the areas of rural development and credit for rural scheme where improvements are needed. India is a developing country, where majority of the population resides in rural areas and for the rural development, poverty reduction needs to be the focus of all development programs. The basic cause of the problem of poverty has been the found to be the economic dependence and lack of access to the credit. Poor have been considered to be non-bankable. They are deprived of the basic financial services in the lack of saving and collaterals to be offered to the finance provider. Consequently, the poor have to depend upon the informal channels of finance like private moneylenders who generally, exploit them in the name of financial help and often, lead to lifetime indebtedness among the borrowers. Education has emerged as a major intervention aimed at poverty reduction. Access to financial services-savings, credit, insurance, money transfer-is one element of human development. In this Study education is defined as a developmental concept which provides access to the so far un-served strata of the Tribal population. That is why it is very important to have integrated approach of education to solve such difficulties which can ensure gradual growth & development in Socio-economic status of Tribal population in the Study.
The present study attempts to highlight some important aspects like government schemes on socio economic status, expenditure, self-employment opportunity, empowerment to the people and reduced economic dependency. On the other hand, microfinance increases investment and productive capacity in the production and development of small and medium scale enterprises. The present study is expected to make an important contribution in the field of economic development by filling the gap in literature on the subject at the State level. Persons of different religious communities, caste and tribes live in this vast and miscellaneousIndia.
About 8.06% of the total population in India are people of indigenous race of tribe. According to the 2011 census 8.72 % of the country in scheduled tribes of these, 4.12 % are men and 3.83 million are women. Male literacy is 68.20 % and female literacy is 47.70 %. We know that education is a whole person development designed to inculcate knowledge skills and attitude necessary to empower individuals to cope efficiently with their environment. However in a highly competitive world the quality of performance has become the basis factor for personal and social progress and it is generally measured by achievement. The current study was carried out among tribal. As tribes are underprivileged and troubled communities in India. They live in isolation and backward therefore they have to face many problems and issue in their life.
These problems are following
Article 46 of the Indian Constitution states that the state must support the weaker groups of the population, especially STs and SCs, and must shield them from social injustice and other forms of exploitation.
According to article 154 (4) the states must provide particular provisions for the advancement of any socially and educationally underprivileged class of citizen , such as STs and SCs. Dissimilar language writing and culture are provided in article 29(1). For ST, it is more significant. Untouchability is completely prohibited by article 17 and is a crime if committed in any way.
According to article 350 (A) every state and local government must make an effort to provide students with suitable facilities for instruction in their mother tongue during the primary stage of education.
According to Article 350(A), every state and local authority within the state shall make reasonable efforts to provide suitable facilities for instruction in the mother language to the children who belong to the minority group at the primary stage of education.
In the national policy of education from 1986, it was acknowledged that tribal peoples were unquestionably far behind the general population in schooling.
II. CURRENT CHALLENGING ISSUES FOR TRIBAL EDUCATION IN INDIA
In the area of tribal education in India, there are a number of difficult problems that are emerging.
A. Bad Economic Context
Tribal people in India rely on agriculture or other traditional economic pursuits for a living. They make less money from these jobs, which prevents them from providing a suitable education for their kids. They don't take their kids to school in this condition; instead, they send them to pay jobs.
B. Isolation (Interior Inhabitation)
The tribal people of India live in remote hills and forested areas without access to modern amenities.To go to the schools, they must travel a great distance. It results in absenteeism, dropout, and also their refusal to enroll in school.
C. Teaching Medium
The teaching language in schools is either English or a regional language. The tribal people speak a unique dialect that prevents their children from understanding what is taught in schools. The educational level of indigenous children is being lowered by this phenomenon.
D. The Parents' Attitude
The tribal population is uneducated, illiterate, and unaware of the importance of education. They just focus on making sure their family survives. They believe that if their kids had to work, it would be better. This is the rationale behind why tribal parents send their kids to labour rather than education.
E. Problem Related To Teachers
Teachers must travel from far-off urban areas because tribal settlements lack adequate lodging options. This inconvenience will cause students to skip or be absent from class. Students will be disconnected from the school as a result.
Teachers may not be fluent in the indigenous tongue, but they do instruct in formal languages. As a result, the value of tribal education is reduced by the hiring of unqualified outside teachers.
F. Suggestion for Ongoing Problem
There are many critical issues and problems in the field of tribal education. There are following suggestion for improvement of in this field. Proper awareness campaign should be organized to create the awareness about the importance of education. Extensive literacy campaign in tribal dominated districts may be undertaken on a priority basis to literate the tribal. The attitude of the tribal parents towards education should be improved through counseling and guidance. All study material should be supplied in local languages of tribes. It is suggested to appoint more tribal teachers and female teachers in the tribal areas. The ecological, cultural, psychological features of tribal children should be consider carefully by the teachers in tribal areas. Since higher education among the tribes is less, special ST scholarships should be provided to the tribal students perusing higher education, particularly in medical, engineering and other vocational streams. More residential schools should be established in each states and districts and extended up to PG level in tribal areas.
Government also try to established social security of students , especially of adolescent girls is of great concern in residential schools and higher level officials should check the functioning of schools frequently relating to the teaching methods , working hours and attendance registers. Parents and children are should be provided motivational programme by experts in various fields. The value of education should teach to tribal parents.
The secret to tribal development is education. Children from tribal groups participate relatively little. Despite the fact that the tribes are developing in India, the rate of growth has been relatively sluggish. If the government doesn’t use some severe measures to promote tribal development we’ll tell a story about education and how it fares among the tribes. Of suffering, hopelessness, and death, It is now appropriate to consider it. Seriously about inclusive growth and aboriginal education. So, various government measures are urgently needed, to address this issue, planners and policy makers should greater money for tribal programmes in the federal and state budgets education. So now is the moment to give inclusive growth and tribal education some serious thought. Therefore, it is vital for thinkers, planners, and decision-makers to work to address the issue and allocate more money from the federal and state budgets for tribal education. To include indigenous youth in the main stream of economic development, more possibilities and simple access should be provided.
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