This article provides information on the development of light and food industries in the Surkhandarya region, as well as practical examples.
Light industry is a set of industries specializing in the design of interiors of consumer goods and products from a variety of raw materials. In light industry, both the initial processing of raw materials and finished products are carried out according to an internal drawing. In light industry, cotton, silk, linen, hemp, jute fibers, animal skins, wool, chemical fibers, artificial leather are used as raw materials. The main industries are textile, clothing, leather, fur and footwear. Light industry products, as well as furniture, aviation, automotive, food and other industries, agriculture, transport, healthcare and others. fields.
The food industry is a branch of the national economy that produces food. The network includes meat and dairy, oil and fat, fish products, flour milling, pasta, canned fruits and vegetables, milk and butter, sugar, tea packaging, confectionery, bread, grape, non-alcoholic, soap and other industries. industry. It includes more than 3200 enterprises. The industry is mainly based on the processing of local raw materials. The food industry produces more than 200 types of products. We see a practical example of these industries on the example of the Surkhandarya region.
The share of light industry in the economy of Uzbekistan is unique and multifaceted. The light and food industries processing agricultural products are part of the republican agro-industrial complex (AIC).
The cotton-cleaning industry of Uzbekistan includes cotton-cleaning, drying and cleaning shops, transport facilities, cotton-cleaning plants operating under a single management. It has 128 gins and 582 gins. The largest cotton ginning plants are located in Denau, Kokand, Karakol, Gijduvan, Kattakurgan, Khazarasp and other cities. (They have a processing capacity of 100,000 tons or more of cotton). The yield of fiber from cotton is on average 31-32 percent. Separated technical seeds are processed at oil and gas plants. 1.0 million people per year in the country. tons of cotton fiber and over 200,000 tons of seeds. In particular, in 2000 Uzbekistan had 1018.6 thousand tons, and in 2004 976.7 thousand tons. cotton fiber was produced.
Consider practical examples of light and food industries on the example of Sukhandarya.
The role of raw materials, climatic and water conditions, labor resources, transport factors in the territorial organization of production in the Surkhandarya region is great. The economic development of the region can be ensured through the effective use of existing factors. An analysis of the structural structure of the regional economy showed that there are areas in the region that differ from each other in terms of development. In particular, the main agricultural and industrial enterprises are located on the plains, which have a large area of arable land, while in the mountainous regions only animal husbandry and mining are developed. However, despite the rich natural resources, industry in the region began to develop in the 50s of the last century. This was due to the discovery of promising deposits in the region as a result of large-scale geological exploration and the construction of large enterprises for the primary processing of cotton. Prior to this, the building materials industry consisted only of the production of bricks and mortars, the light and food industries for processing grain, the cotton ginning and oil-pressing industries.
After gaining independence, as in all areas, the industry has undergone fundamental changes. As a result of the difficulties of the industrial transition period in the Surkhandarya region, production in some sectors has decreased, while others have ceased their activities. The role of the non-state sector in the production of goods began to emerge. For example, in 1999, 92% of industrial output was produced in the non-state sector, and by 2010 this figure had risen to almost 100%. Operating industrial enterprises are equipped with modern equipment.
As a result, production capacities have increased one and a half to two times due to the re-equipment of such enterprises as the Dzharkurgan spinning and weaving mill and the Shorchin flour mill with modern foreign equipment. An enterprise for the production of 50,000 tons of table salt per year was launched at the Khodjaikon salt deposit, and a new line with a production capacity of 10,000 tons of soap per year was launched at the Denau oil extraction plant. Of the 49 registered joint ventures such as Surxonteks and Oltin Chigit, 44 are operational (2012). In 1999, 20 joint ventures raised $800 million. In 2012, joint ventures produced goods and services in the amount of 10 4751.8 million soums.
The industry of the region, like all regions of the republic, faced various economic difficulties in the first years of independence. This is due to violations of existing forms of production (specialization, cooperation), changes in the management system, and financial difficulties.
About 40 types of industrial products are produced in the operating industries of the region. Most of them are consumer goods. Therefore, the production of consumer goods is growing every year. Industrial centers are located mainly on the plains of the region, and MPOs are formed in convenient settlements near highways.
Among industries, a significant contribution to the volume of production is made by light and food industries, specializing in the processing of agricultural products. For the development of these industries in the region, along with cheap raw materials, there are enough labor resources. The main branch of light industry is cotton ginning. The industry provides 47.1% of the region's industrial products and 93.2% of light industry products. Termez cotton-cleaning plant, built in 1912, is the first industrial enterprise in the region. Currently, there are 11 large cotton ginning plants in the region, the largest of which are Sherabad, Dzharkurgon, Denau. The decrease in the supply of raw materials in recent years has led to the inability of enterprises to operate at full capacity.
The food industry is the second largest industry in the region. Its flour and flour products (Shurchi, Dzharkurgan), butter and dairy products (Denau, Termez), meat and meat products (Termez), canned fruits (Denau, Oltinsoy, Sariosiyo), There are such industries as wine and wine-making, alcoholic beverages (Denov , Oltinsoy). Among more than 20 industrial enterprises in this industry, a significant share in terms of production is occupied by the Sherabad salt plant, the Shurchinsky flour-grinding plant, the Termez meat-packing plant, and the Denau winery.
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