Authors: S. Rose Mina, Makula M. Mwiluja, Fredrick P. Kalabo, Brayzack J. Kaaya, Mr. Salimu R. Gongoma, Makoye M. John
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Solar energy is considered to be an alternative sustainable energy source in the urban environment. The main aim of this study is to learn what the general public thinks about solar energy. This study‘s main source of inspiration was the dearth of prior research in the area. The questionnaire were prepared to screen for the prevalence of solar energy system users. In total, 100 36 samples were examined for the purposes of this study. The findings revealed that among the respondents, 36, 3636% currently use 36% currently use solar energy for a variety of reasons, including 50% cost savings, 22% environmental sustainability, 17% solar power reliability, and 11% grid access. The findings show that 64 respondents do not currently use solar energy due to a number of reasons, including We found that out of 100 respondents, 70% were aware of the potential benefits of solar energy and only 30% were not. Our study found that 65 respondents’ families had an income of less than one million TZS per month. Therefore, Based on the results it can be concluded that for the general public in the Dar es salaam region, income was acknowledge as a barrier to switching to solar energy as an alternative energy source. The potential of using solar energy in urban areas is highly dependent on urban morphology which affects the level of solar irradiance received by individual buildings. It leads to inefficient design of neighborhoods in terms of solar energy potential. The present study investigates the potential of exploiting solar energy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania by using numerical modelling of solar irradiance on building roofs and façades. It is shown that there is substantial solar irradiance received by building roofs in all four study neighborhoods and urban morphology has considerable effects on annual solar irradiance. Solar irradiance of different orientations of tilted roofs and façades is subject to seasonality of the solar azimuth angle. It is suggested that such abundant solar energy sources would provide solutions to accommodate the increasing energy demand and to improve living quality in urban areas due to the rapid urbanization of the city.
Solar energy is widely considered to be a sustainable and readily available energy source in urban environments. As about 54% of the world’s population resides in urban areas, an enormous amount of energy is used, and a large proportion of greenhouse gases are released at the same time.
In particular, the urban population in developing countries is expected to vastly increase in the next few decades (United Nations, 2014).
In Africa, it was estimated that a 1% increase in urbanization leads to a 14% increase in charcoal consumption, in turn leading to increased air pollution and emissions of greenhouse gases and thus a contribution to global warming (World Bank, 2009). It results in the urgent need for the exploitation of solar energy in order to mitigate the impacts of fossil fuel consumption and improve the living quality of urban areas (Pearce, 2002).
In developing countries in Africa, the use of electricity has been increasing in the last decade. For example, in urban areas of Tanzania, the proportion of the urban population having access to electricity has increased from 39% in 2005 to 52% in 2009 (Shkaratan, 2012).
In particular, the annual electricity consumption of high-income households is over 360 kW/h and is expected to increase due to the rapid economic development in Tanzania (Hosier & Kipondya, 1993). Half of Tanzania's charcoal is used in Dar es Salaam, mostly for urban household energy, with an increase of 70% in 2009. On the other hand, the limited access to grid electricity in rural areas leads to an overall 6% of the total population having access to grid electricity in Tanzania (Bauner, Sundell, Senyagwa, & Doyle, 2012). Tanzania’s electricity generation, which is mainly based on hydropower and natural gas, is sensitive to variations in precipitation rate and fossil fuel prices, and consequently, power failures are common. To cope with this, many industries, hotels, shops, and private households have installed their own diesel
-driven generators, especially in Dar es Salaam (Bauner et al., 2012). This leads to increased emissions of toxic and greenhouse gases, and the cost to install and operate these generators is a large burden on the economy. There is thus an enormous demand for more reliable electricity generation, which can potentially be accommodated by the exploitation of solar energy in the urban environment.
One of the problems associated with the exploitation of solar energy in urban areas is the high-rise and compacted urban form, which prevents solar radiation from reaching building surfaces (Yun and Steemers, 2009). It reduces solar energy potential since solar irradiance is the most crucial parameter in photovoltaic (PV) systems. Several studies have previously examined the relationship between solar energy potential and urban morphology. Compagnon (2004) quantified the potential of façades and roofs for PV electricity production in Switzerland by numerical simulations of solar irradiance. It was shown that different building layouts with the same density exhibit large variations in solar energy potential on building facades, suggesting that solar availability can be increased even in dense urban areas. Cheng et al. (2006) analyzed the effect of urban form and density (in terms of plot ratio) on the PV potential of the building envelope. Vertical randomness in building height is found to be more favorable at lower site coverage since it provides better solar access to building façades. Sarralde et al. (2015) further used a number of descriptors of urban morphology to describe various urban forms, which are parametrically analyzed for their corresponding solar energy potential. By modifying specific descriptors of an existing neighborhood, they found that the availability of solar irradiance in building façades can be increased by 45%. Therefore, careful design of urban neighborhoods is very important to optimizing solar energy potential in urban areas.
A wide range of tools have been developed to simulate solar irradiance at both building and urban scales (Compagnon, 2004; Lindberg, Holmer, & Thorsson, 2008; Šúri et al., 2005; Šúri et al., 2007). High-resolution digital surface models (DSM) are used to estimate the availability of solar radiation for extensive areas due to their computational efficiency using 2.5-dimensional raster-based calculations. These models have been widely used to determine the solar energy potential of roofs with various geometries (Hofierka and Kanuk, 2009; Nguyen and Pearce, 2012). The recent model developed by Redweik et al. (2013) provides estimations of wall irradiances by calculating diffuse and direct irradiances on the ground, roofs, and walls for individual hours on a high-resolution DSM. The present study aims to examine the solar energy potential of different urban settings in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Four typical urban settings with different building geometries (building height and coverage) are chosen to compare the effect of various urban morphological parameters on the availability of solar radiation on both the roofs and façades of buildings. Findings of the present study form part of the project entitled "Efficient use of land and energy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Urban planning and climate adaptation", which aims to develop a set of planning recommendations for sustainable, climate-sensitive urban planning in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
A. Statements of the Problem
Using Solar energy as alternative source of energy is crucial for daily activities in households and institutions. However there is a concern regarding the lack of public awareness and education about solar energy. Lack of financing options for solar installations and poor quality of solar products and costs hinder the widespread adoption of solar energy in Tz. The study aims to address the barriers and challenges to widespread adoption of solar energy in TZ.
B. The General Objective.
To investigate and understand how people in Tanzania perceive and view the adoption and utilization of solar energy as an alternative source of energy, with the aim of identifying any barriers, challenges, or opportunities for its widespread use.
C. The Specific Objectives
E. Justification of the Project
According to estimates from several studies, coal and natural gas account for more than 60% of the fuel used to generate electricity globally.
Therefore, a crucial part of combating climate change on a large scale is reducing emissions from the energy sector. The push for the adoption of renewable energy sources like solar and wind has been a key component of the solution to reducing emissions from the production of energy.
While the direct reduction of GHG emissions through the development of solar and wind infrastructure is well understood, research on the best practices for putting this infrastructure in place is just getting started. Therefore, the discussion surrounding an energy transition now includes the significance of public perceptions and support for renewable energy projects.
Due to a lack of funding, a researcher must travel to various locations in order to collect various types of data. Funds are needed for stationary tasks like typing, printing, and binding. Some parts of the research are irrelevant to certain contents because people are reluctant to provide precise information about it.
The researcher's ability to learn about research firsthand is constrained. In some locations, research permits are secured; without authorized law and regulation, no precise information, questionnaire can be collected. Due to the fact that most of us collect questionnare during the day and that this can occasionally conflict with class schedules, having little time to collect data becomes a barrier.
II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Solar energy is considered to be the most important sustainable source of energy in different countries around the world. Adenle (2020) analyzed the challenges in meeting the 2030 goals of sustainable energy, particularly in developing African countries using solar energy technology.
Adenle came up with an idea based on the achievement of Millennium Development Goals through the adoption of solar energy (Adenle 2020). In the adoption of solar energy as a sustainable source of energy, sometimes there are a variety of inefficiencies. (Aly, et al., 2018) comes with findings on the major barriers that seem to be a major problem in adopting solar energy in Tanzania. They come with the result that, when implemented, may reduce or eradicate the risk of being energy dependent in the country. In 2020, Li and Huang worked on the expansion of solar energy in China based on policy and challenges to handle the proposed policy. The outcome of their work was based on suggestions to the country to adopt policies that would emphasize the expansion of solar energy in China, resulting in better environmental preservation so as to reduce the risk of global warming.
B. Significance of the Study
Kulworawanichpong and Mwambeleko, (2015) worked on finding relief on the cost of electricity after identifying 24% of the population having access to electricity and 93% of households in rural areas lacking electricity; therefore, they suggested that in order to reduce the cost, a stand-alone solar photovoltaic system should be designed in rural areas to eradicate the risk of a shortage of energy in rural areas.
Inappropriate energy structures in a country hinder sustainable development and the rapid development of society. The energy demand in society is increasing at a credible speed. Li-qun et al. (2010) analyzed that steady and maintainable electric power provides the development momentum of a country`s industrialization and development of solar energy, as regarded by the government and ordinary people in China.
Mekhilef, et al. (2011) they insisted the government of Malaysia develop solar energy as one of the most significant sources of energy in the country. The environmentally friendly factors and contributions to lower carbon emissions made it the best choice for future energy power generation.
Samatar et al. (2023) come with findings that due to unfamiliarity, lack of energy awareness, high initial costs, and lack of infrastructure, the utilization of solar energy is limited in Somalia.
Khare et al. (2023) found that population growth and technological improvements are driving up energy demand all over the world. Due to the significance of sunlight,the demand for solar energy for electrification has exploded. Adoption of solar energy is important for the sustainable development of the country.
Kabir et al. (2017), analyzed that solar power technologies are a key solution fulfilling a worldwide increasing demand for energy due to population growth and highlights the barriers such as economic hindrances and low solar cell efficiencies. Rosati et al. (2019), analyzed the impact of seasonal thermal energy storage design on the dynamic performances of a solar heating system serving a small-scale Italian district composed of residential and school buildings. The findings helped to enhance the utilization of solar energy in any season of the year.
Heffron et al. (2021) did their work on justice in solar energy development; this study helped solar energy developers perform their duties in a comfortable situation. Apart from various studies on solar energy in different countries around the world, this study will help to analyze the perception of solar energy as an alternative source of energy in Tanzania.
C. Critical Study
Despite the fact that norms and general awareness have a favorable impact on consumer behavior, informational messages should be the cornerstone of promotional campaigns, according to a Kaldellis et al. (2012) study. Aly et al. (2019), who identified a number of barriers, including institutional, monetary, and technological ones.
According to Djurisic et al. (2020), consumer attitudes and perceptions of renewable energy sources are more significant than consumer awareness of these sources.
Our perceptions of renewable energy sources may change depending on our awareness, as shown by the statistical significance of the interaction between awareness and perception, which is 7.6%, which is also 5%.
III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The analysis's goal was to examine how public behaved in relation to the use of solar energy and to pinpoint the factors that were affecting their attitude. The investigation's main objectives were to learn more about people's awareness of solar energy and to identify the aspects of their perceptions and attitude that influence and affect how they respond when it comes to solar energy as an alternative source of energy.
B. Research Design
For this study, a research method based on questionnaires was used to collect data.
We used the R package for graphical representation. A set of relationships between one or more independent variables and one or more dependent variables, both either continuous or discrete, has been examined using a variety of statistical techniques known as IBMSPSS.
C. Target Population
This research was done in the Tanzanian administrative ward of Kwembe, which is found in Dar es Salaam's Ubungo District. Men and women, both over and under the age of 18, were both included in the study.
D. Location of Study
The research was conducted in the Dar es Salaam Region as a case study with reference to households and institutions. Research was conducted in Dar es Salaam areas around Kwembe ward to analyze how solar energy is used as an alternative source of energy. Kwembe (Kata ya Kwembe in Swahili) is an administrative ward and district capital of the Ubungo District of the Dar es Salaam Region in Tanzania.
The ward is bordered to the north by the wards of Mbezi and Kibamba, and to the east by the wards of Kinyerezi and Pugu in the Ilala District. To the west the ward is bordred with Kisarawe District’s the Kiluvya and Kisarawe wards of Pwani Region.
(Source. Courtesy. Wikipedia https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kwembe)
Coordinates: 6°48′27.72″S 39°4′54.48″E
Country : Tanzania
Region :Dar es Salaam Region
District : Ubungo District
Total Area :60.4 km2 (23.3 sq mi)
Population (2012) :56,899
Demonym : Kwembean
Tanzanian Postal Code : 16111
E. Sample and Sample Size
There were 170 Dar es Salaam residents who participated anonymously in the sample. From June 2023 till 31st of July 2023, the survey was carried out. One hundred valid out of 170 total distributed questionnaires—or 58.8%—were found to be valid. Questionnaires that were incomplete or incorrectly completed were not taken into account. Based on an analysis of earlier studies that addressed the same issue, the questionnaire was created Alsabbagh,(2023).
F. Methods of Data Collection
In this study, the following methods were used to collect data: questionnaires and interviews, which were used to gather quantitative data in Kwembe ward in Ubungo Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Given the long-term consequences of the present study, the sample structure is suitable for the research. The advantages of switching from conventional to renewable energy sources will most significantly benefit people based on their income. Therefore, the present study investigated the personal income of the respondents. In addition, there are 100.0% women in the population.
V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The goal of the project was to ascertain how Tanzanian residents in the Kwembe and Mbezi wards perceived using solar energy as an alternative source of energy. The project revealed that there are obstacles and difficulties that citizens in Kwembe wards face when trying to adopt solar energy widely. These obstacles and difficulties include a lack of knowledge and education about solar energy, a lack of financing options for solar energy installations, a lack of readily available high-quality solar products, and a lack of government policies that sufficiently support solar energy. The findings are consistent with the work of Aly et al. (2019), who identified a variety of obstacles, including institutional, financial, and technological barriers.
The project's findings show that there were negative effects to the adoption of solar energy such as altered daily routines, poor business performance, and decreased productivity. Additionally, the results showed that there may be ways to get around the obstacles that the residents of Kwembe and Mbezi wards face in adopting solar energy. The suggested actions include spreading knowledge about solar energy among the general public and enacting laws to foster its development.
The most convincing advantages of solar energy were revealed by the research, which indicated that using solar energy has a number of advantages, including lower electricity costs and environmental friendliness.
According to a Kaldellis et al. (2012) study, informational messages should be the foundation of promotional campaigns even though general awareness and norms have a positive influence on consumer behavior.
Similar study conducted by Djurisic et al. (2020) showed that consumer perceptions and attitudes toward renewable energy source are more important than consumer awareness of renewable energy source. The statistical significance of the interaction between awareness and perception, which is 7.6%, is also 5%, indicating that our perceptions of renewable energy source may change depending on the awareness itself.
A. Conclusion To address the question, \"What are the perceptions to large-scale solar power as an alternative source of energy in Tanzania?\" the study adopted a questionnaire-based methodology. The main house-wifes in the Dar es Salaam region were interviewed in questionnaire based interviews as part of a qualitative study. The study went into detail about the perceptions of the repsondents attitude and perceptions to the use of solar power as an alternative source in Tanzania. According to the perception construct, 36.0% of the respondents actually used solar power. The knowledge/awareness construct explains that 70.0% of respondents are aware of the benefits of cost-saving solar energy source. The fact that electricity is insufficient in Kwembe and Mbezi Ward, in addition, supports the conclusions of earlier studies, showing that lack of information and a lack of financing options for solar installations continue to impede the adoption of solar energy. The results show that advertising campaigns are necessary to close the gap, which would eventually lead to a greater willingness on the part of consumers to spend more money on solar energy. And finally, it is suggested that in Dar es Salaam renewable energy source projects are necessary for using solar energy sources that will further advance improvements in the general public\'s awareness of solar energy. B. Recommendations Based on the existing literature and the research findings, recommendations are proposed to overcome the problem of insufficient electricity by addressing the barriers and challenges to widespread adoption of solar energy. The following are the recommendations that were put forward to overcome the challenges: 1) The government should promote public awareness and education about the benefits and potential of solar energy. This can include educational campaigns, workshops, and community outreach programs that focus on solar energy education and its role in promoting sustainability. 2) The government should reinforce and implement policies that support the growth and adoption of solar energy. This can involve providing financial incentives for solar installations and setting renewable energy targets. 3) Support international cooperation: International collaboration among researchers, governments, and organizations can drive progress in solar energy research and accelerate the adoption of solar as a viable alternative source of energy. Collaborative efforts can include sharing best practices, exchanging knowledge, and aligning policies and regulations. By implementing these recommendations, the potential of solar energy as an alternative source of energy can be maximized, leading to a more sustainable and diversified global energy landscape.
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Copyright © 2023 S. Rose Mina, Makula M. Mwiluja, Fredrick P. Kalabo, Brayzack J. Kaaya, Mr. Salimu R. Gongoma, Makoye M. John. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.