Authors: Puja Verma
DOI Link: https://doi.org/10.22214/ijraset.2023.49205
Certificate: View Certificate
\'Nature\' and biophilic design have drawn a lot of attention in architecture over the past 10 years, particularly in reaction to the mounting environmental problems. Regarding how to conceptualise and address \"nature\" in practise and study, there are still debates and unanswered concerns. In order to analyse biophilic design as a theoretical framework to understand \"nature\" in architecture, this study reviews the relevant literature. The ensuing queries are addressed: (1) How did the idea of \"biophilic design\" come about, and what does it mean? (2) How might biophilic design advance the aims of sustainable construction? (3) What are the main biophilic design principles? The basic frameworks of biophilic design are identified, contrasted, and their essential components are explained in this review. Then, we examine the advantages (such as improved health and wellbeing, The sustainable Development Goals provide as a framework for the role of biophilic design in attaining sustainability. These goals focus on productivity, biodiversity, and circularity. The findings show that biophilic design, which encompasses various aspects of nature, including physical, sensory, conceptual, morphological, material, and spiritual nature, is more complicated and richer than simply using vegetation in buildings. Moreover, knowledge gaps are noted to spur further investigation and critical evaluations of biophilic design techniques.
The term "biophilia" was created to characterise humans' innate affinity for the living things in the natural world and developed from research on human evolution That explains why humans favour nature since it is a deep-seated impulse in the human brain. The "biophilia hypothesis" was first put forth in 1993 to emphasise that the human-nature relationship plays a key role in human brain evolution as well as physical and psychological health . It is based on further understanding and the experience-based examination of "biophilia." Based on their expertise in numerous domains, it was the first time that researchers suggested tentative answers to describe why people enjoy nature and why nature has a favourable impact on physical and psychological health.
Since the health influences of biophilia are supported by robust empirical evidence, researchers have started to explore how to employ biophilia principles in design practice . Stephen Kellert (1943–2016) first coined the term for design activity that aimed to “rebuild a positive relationship between the natural environment and human in the modern built environment” as “biophilic design”. The innovative approach revealed that biophilia research started to transfer from basic research to practical design application and affected sustainable design strategies. Some scholars summarized and classified the natural design features into biophilic design frameworks to guide design activities.
The importance of investment in the workforce of organisations and enterprises has increased, which has sparked a renaissance of the biophilia hypothesis and, increasingly recently, biophilic design. The emotions created by the above-described mental exercise have names thanks to these notions. In addition to the fact that humans are inherently drawn to natural environments and elements, psychologists and biologists have proposed that exposure to nature (whether direct, indirect, or symbol) within the building design increases productivity, health, and general well-being.
Designers and researchers with backgrounds in the building design have recently focused on biophilic design. These projects have recently been more popular in a wide range of environmental design patterns, including commercial , healthcare [16,17], and urban designs. This is due to the health benefits of biophilic design. One of the typologies that draws academics' attention is the workplace. Researchers that examine the connection between both the built environment and health have discovered that people's performance at work and in school is also impacted by their environment . The health and productivity of employees in an office setting are improved by biophilic design, according to studies.
In actuality, designers have included biophilic design elements or pattern into projects and stated that doing so promotes user wellbeing.
Although the significance of biophilic design appears to be widely acknowledged and some global or regional green building and good health building standards, such as the Singapore Green Mark and WELL building standard version 2, incorporate biophilic design features into the rating scale , more research is still required to develop building diagnostic sustainable and green design guidelines and assessment techniques. Nevertheless, it is yet uncertain whether such designs are useful for user wellbeing in real-world design initiatives. More importantly, biophilic design standards based on building typology should be properly created, as they might influence how the designer prioritises the choice of design features in practise.
Also, a 2021 study from Human Spaces called "The Global Impact of Biophilic Design in the Workplace" discovered that employees in offices with natural components, such grass and sunlight, accomplish;
6% more productivity
15% more creativity
15% higher levels of well-being
Increasing amounts of research point to a direct relationship between workplace design and employees' health and wellness. Also, one's mental health might influence their perceptions of the world and how they feel about it. The effects of biophilic design elements in offices on employees' health and wellbeing are looked at in this study. The biophilic design for workplace health and wellness is assessed using a new post-occupancy evaluation (POE) questionnaire. Two green building workplaces in Singapore and Shenzhen, China, are the subject of a survey and field observations. The primary findings are that I employees have a reasonably high opinion of the benefits of biophilic features in the workplace for enhancing health and wellbeing and (ii) there are substantial variations between self-reported health and natural surroundings.
II. VEGETATION OR GREENERY
One of the biophilic design elements most frequently employed at Office building is plants. The plants are used to beautify the entire structure in a variety of ways, including green walls, vertical greening, a roof garden, potted plants in workstations, sky gardens, and green balconies. The businesses have made use of potted plants within the offices at both locations. Plants have been added to Office A's interior, and potted plants have been positioned on the file folders closest to a workstations. On a regular basis, Office B places a plant pot on each employee's desk. Some workers decorate their desks with miniature potted plants they've bought.
III. AIRFLOW AND THERMAL COMFORT FACTOR AND AIR QUALITY
Due to its location in a tropical climate zone and high daily temperatures throughout the year, Office A depends on the air conditioning system to maintain a comfortable inside temperature. Office B's operable windows provide a staff-managed choice. All windows in both businesses have movable curtains fitted, and Office B has built-in panels.
IV. NATURAL MATERIALS
The majority of the furnishings and flooring in Office B's semi-outdoor spaces and building facade are constructed of wood and stone. With white ceilings and grey carpeting, the inside is grey. Wooden screens and floors are used as natural interior décor components in Offices.
The observational findings attest to the effectiveness of the design tactics used in the study's offices. From the viewpoint of the users, the combination of the observable with self-reported results of the questionnaire further confirms the efficiency of biophilic design for well-being and health. The findings show that the designers apply a variety of biophilic design techniques to improve user experiences. Moreover, the design techniques used to bring the outdoors into the office
In actuality, designers have included biophilic design elements or pattern into projects and stated that doing so promotes user wellbeing. Although the significance of biophilic design appears to be widely acknowledged and some global or regional green building and good health building standards, such as the Singapore Green Mark and WELL building standard version, incorporate biophilic design features into the rating scale, more research is still required to develop building diagnostic sustainable and green design guidelines and assessment techniques. Nevertheless, it is yet uncertain whether such designs are useful for user wellbeing in real-world design initiatives. More importantly, biophilic design standards based on building typology should be properly created, as they might influence how the designer prioritises the choice of design features in practise.
V. PROBLEM STATEMENT
Many Asian cities are developing rapidly, and maximising land and return of investment is every clients concern. Thus space optimization, creating a healthy work environment while maintaining productivity is of the utmost importance.
The current approach to high-rise office buildings creates an atmosphere that is not conducive for working. People are less productive, stressed out, can easily catch viruses or other health related illnesses. Poorly planned high-rise buildings often suffer from Sick Building Syndrome (SBS). Land use plays an important role in the vitality of an area, as well as that of a building. It is essential to introduce mix-use program within the building to create different activities which run throughout different times of the day. This creates a vibrant atmosphere and promotes social interaction.
The current structure lacks a strong axis and public vistas, which is a flaw that has to be fixed. There are no breakout, green, or socialising places inside the enclosed indoor environment. The health and productivity of the business structure will be considerably improved by including biophilic features into the office building, which will also help to reduce overall environmental effect on the built and natural environments. Green buildings are safe and enjoyable places to live, engage, and work since health is a crucial component of achieving sustainability. In order to create a healthy, stress-free workplace, the study explores how biophilic design in high-rise buildings works and how its principles might be used.
VI. OFFICE-OCCUPANCY ASSESSMENT
OOA is a research approach that is used to evaluate if the building design and performance match the design expectations. It is implemented to examine building function. The purpose of OOA is to conduct a post-occupancy inquiry on architectural design from the perspective of building design. The study's findings give architects advice that they can use to enhance their design approaches in later projects. Additionally, since OOA is one of the common research methodologies that can successfully identify operational issues, from the standpoint of building operations, the OOA results can provide feedback from occupants to users and building managers on workspace biophilic design. OOA is a procedure that, from the perspective of building performance, compares the evaluation results and building criteria to evaluate building performance. Data on the building system are gathered and analysed as part of the evaluation process. OOA is an appropriate evaluation method for determining whether a green building project will have the required impact on energy savings during operation. OOA concentrates on determining whether the intended environment satisfies users' demands from their point of view. The OOA of building performance and users' satisfaction are also frequently used to develop building performance evaluation (BPE). Moreover, BPE stresses physical characteristics like energy consumption and building energy savings, and considers whether a building's design influences user behaviour and satisfaction. As a result, POE combines and enhances the three aforementioned viewpoints. One of the architectural design techniques for reestablishing the relationship between people and nature in the built environment is called "biophilic design."
According to different research methodologies, POE studies are typically divided into three categories: indicative, investigative, and diagnostic POE . An unrefined evaluation process known as a "indicative POE" was used to quickly collect evaluation data from the important employees. In order to conduct a thorough analysis, investigative POE uses inspection techniques such end-user survey questionnaires, interviewing, photographic recording, and field measurements.
VII. IMPORTANCE OF OOA IN MEASURING THE IMPACT OF DESIGN
Contrary to basic research, building design techniques are focused on the needs of the final consumers; in other words, occupant experiences are directly impacted by building design, making "user happiness" an important consideration in building design.
OOA is essential to completing the missing piece of the sustainable design process in the built environment. For the past 50 years, it has aided professionals in getting consumer feedback [48,49]. The first international green building certification system that is based on the Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) , Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) , and other current international green building and healthy structure certification systems all include POE as a requirement for certification. The healthy building certification programmes include the WELL building certification , the Singapore green mark , and the green mark for a healthy workplace . The tenant satisfaction survey and building documents are the main emphasis of the credit criteria. Quality and health are treated as integral components of the current POE for evaluating a workplace environment, despite the fact that it is an indoor setting. Researchers have created analytical techniques for biophilic workplace design . They mostly consist of observations and occupant surveys, which involve both questionnaire surveys or interviews with building residents and studies assessing and recording biophilic traits. Although these are common study techniques for investigative POE, there are currently no POE scales that specifically address biophilic design inside the workplace. In line with the study
VIII. RESERCH GAP
The biophilic design techniques are being practice in other countries, India in composite climate has not experiences such techniques.
The current structure lacks a strong axis and public vistas, which is a flaw that has to be The main research aim is to gather, analyse and implement information on the existence of both the nature in the workplace and the criteria and purposes of implementing biophilic design features within the current urban office setting in order to design a healthy and productive working environment. The research will revolve around the implementation of suitable design approach in order to promote productivity and enhance workplace wellness to be incorporated in the current Design
The current study's goals can be summed up as follows:
To investigate and literature review related to biophilic
XI. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Based on the literature review research and studies, the research questions generated and produced are :-
XII. SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDIES
Studies are important for this research because they highlight the direct and indirect strategies that should be used in the design of biophilic elements to promote workplace wellness and improve the working environment in order to foster a good atmosphere. In order to create research objectives for additional research projects, this chapter will establish the knowledge for the research paradigm. The methodical use of research technique results in a final product that is highlighted under the research's aim and objectives. The study papers will be helpful for academic instructors and students who follow similar tactics to improve their professional wellness. Also, office users can benefit from this research by using it as a set of criteria to assess their performance in particular working environments.
In addition, this study will be used as a guide for creating a perfect workplace in the future for corporate businesses. Understanding and simplification of the biophilic design patterns, as well as the development of an architectural design strategy based on the research, are crucial research goals in this study.
The primary design premise of biophilic design is straightforward, and it can be applied to our built environment to greatly improve health. The majority of the time, employers and corporate businesses view biophilic design as a luxury rather than the greatest option for increasing employee productivity in the workplace. according to Terrapin The Economics of Biophilia, a journal article by Bright Green, emphasised the idea that providing both direct and indirect access to nature will contribute to the tenure and durability of the structure itself. Although Heschong-Mahone Group did a study to demonstrate the level of productivity, the results reveal that strategically placed greenery, direct access to greenery views, and large windows considerably lower stress levels and increase worker productivity.
Methodology survey such as field observations and questionnaire surveys of users.
XIV. EXPECTED FINDINGS
The author will detail the design strategies and areas needed based on biophilic design elements with specific established design criteria that may be used to current design thesis project at the conclusion of the investigation. According to the results of the performed research studies, biophilic design elements can help to increase workplace wellbeing and productivity in high rise office buildings. The overall productivity and wellness will be greatly boosted with the greater use of biophilic design characteristics, it can be concluded from reading and research sources.
The study also focused on vertical green components, which can improve the working environment by providing both direct and indirect visual connections to the outside, enhancing the office building's overall workplace wellness.
The author will highlight potential design techniques for developing office spaces that can lessen the effects of sick building syndrome in high-rise workplaces in urban settings. This analysis suggests that the author's design thesis project can make greater use of every theory, design strategy, and guiding principle.
Biophilic Design can be experiment in office building useful space, re-establish human and Nature relationship connection among them
Biophilic concept is a wide range area which has important to generate in the field of Architecture building spaces of different typology like residential, commercial, offices, Institutions Building, Healthcare, and further which have numerous health benefit related to the mental and psychological problems where which act as a solving problem solutions. This Research is limited some boundaries as I am taking as an institutional building which have a live site sample, originated setup where we must have to measure design element and site attribute according to the current site and climatological affect. The study's goal was to assess the typical biophilic design features found in office settings as well as the relationship between biophilic design and workplace wellness. The research's scope is therefore quite broad. The research focus should be more focused in future studies to allow for more in-depth analysis.
This study highlights user preferences, aids in decision-making regarding workplace biophilic design, also increases the efficiency of the biophilic design. Since the beginning of time humans have been living in involving with nature that being surrounded by nature is in our DNA. We are wired to respond positively the natural environments, biophilic means the love of Living systems and it can dramatically improve the way we feel and perform in our life. Scientist discovered genetic links that illustrate how human have adopted their biological response mechanism to natural environment. Several responses system wake up and to get positive reaction in our physical and psychology that\'s why we found our self in nature we automatically feel more relaxed. Our molecules respond to biophilic design. Biophilic principal have been established now which help us to inform urban design or all landscape design. Some of those principles are providing natural with urban space, natural can reduce stress promote positive feelings and enhance concentration recovery. Many research has shown that hospital patient who can see tree and garden from their bed recover faster than those who cannot.
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Copyright © 2023 Puja Verma. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Paper Id : IJRASET49205
Publish Date : 2023-02-22
ISSN : 2321-9653
Publisher Name : IJRASET
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