Fingerprint image of father, mother and child in ink paper method are collected from the region of West Bengal, India. One Hundred family without having kinship relation are involved in the data collection process. The paper is scanned with a HP scanner with 1200 ppi resolution and pre-processed with different technique to form a dataset of 1500 fingerprint images. Different non reference and reference image quality assessment technique are applied to test the quality of the image dataset. Minutiae based feature are extracted from the images to find a correlation between child and parent’s fingerprints. This family fingerprint dataset can be used by the researchers to find an alternative of DNA matching for parental verification or other research works.
The biometric based authentication system become the post popular and useful form of personal identification. Moreover, fingerprint-based system provides most ease access and cost-effective solution in the market . With the exception of mishaps, including cuts and bruises on the finger tips, a person’s finger ridge configurations don’t vary throughout the course of their lifespan. When the fetus has grown for around seven months, fingerprints are fully developed. Fingerprints are a component of an individual’s phenotype, which results from the interplay of the individual’s genes with the developmental environment in the uterus . For years, people have been debating whether human fingerprints and other features are inheritable. Almost all characteristics in the offspring share genetic information from the parents, according to geneticists . The size, shape, and spacing of the ridges and the inheritance of fingerprint patterns have been shown to be strongly correlated by early pioneers in the subject of dermatoglyphics (the study of friction ridge skin patterns). Fingerprints have a trait that is inherited. While some pattern types are frequently inherited genetically, finger- prints’ individual characteristics are not . There is a lack of scientific research on the fingerprint pattern resemblance in families using the qualitative attributes available in the dataset . On the other hand, quality of the input data has an impact on biometric recognition systems, just as other applications of pattern recognition and machine learning. As a result, it’s crucial to quantitatively assess a sample’s quality in order to establish whether it can be used as a biometric or not. Lack of standards have inescapably resulted in the spread of results that are contradictory, incomparable, and non-replicable . The uniformity and strength of the ridge patterns are assessed using methodologies for evaluating fingerprint quality . The characteristics of the ridge patterns and the sample’s performance at recognition are directly related   .
During the study, samples from 100 families are collected to form a family fingerprint dataset for the researchers to test similarity between child and parent fingerprints. The collected fingerprints are analysed and checks for quality using non reference and reference methods. The manuscript is organized as follows: Section II, the importance of the dataset is described. Section III present the internal details of the dataset. Section IV describe the experimental setup. Section V represents the reference and non-reference image quality analysis with minutiae-based image feature analysis. Section VI draws the concluding remarks. Future directive of the present work is enlisted in Section VII.
II. IMPORTANCE OF DATASET
Demographically separated and good quality with standardized family fingerprints dataset may be in need of the research community for operational recognition and evaluation of different state of the art techniques in near future. The importance of the created dataset and the possible use are highlighted below:
Researchers may take hold of the dataset to check whether some relation can be established between parents and children’s and may be used as an alternative of costly DNA matching.
Family fingerprints plays an important role in identification of victims of natural or man-made disasters such as tsunami, earth quake, flood, pandemic or war bombing. Victims body may be identified with the help of fingerprint where face recognition is not possible and other document are missing.
Applications for government employment, passport or other identity document verification and defense security clearness, family fingerprints may play an important role.
Identification of genetic deceases such as amnesia or other unknown decease family fingerprints may act as a dependable tool.
Banking and finance sector may use family fingerprints dataset to identify true patrimony in case of sudden or accidental death of a client.
Proper maintenance and continuous updating of family fingerprint dataset may be useful to track infants’ vaccination and nutrition records.
III. DESCRIPTION OF DATASET
We involve 100 families from the West Bengal region in India to collect the fingerprint data. We have collected five fingerprints of five fingers of each person’s right hand which comprises a total of 1500 images. The age range of parents is in between 20 years to 60 years and children age is between 5 years to 25 years. Table I represents the description of the Dataset.
VI. FUTURE SCOPE
A more research is required on the examination of the genetic relationships and inherited pattern conditions based on family fingerprints, more research is required. A more effective evaluation methodology is required for biometric quality assessment metrics. Statistical tests and a strong association with match score performance can help with more accurate evaluation. Researchers must place a considerable emphasis on computation cost while designing quality evaluation approaches, which must be less than or equal to the matching time. The sensor that is being used to collect the fingerprint sample greatly determines its quality. The majority of quality measures should evaluate ridge clarity and the number of detected minutia because auto capture is a popular function in contemporary fingerprint sensors, necessitating real-time quality assessment of the given sample. Infants of age less than 5 years may be included in dataset collection which may reveal broad scope of research.
This paper makes an effort to investigate the existence of genetic relationships among family members utilizing minute traits. The fingerprints are collected from father, mother, and child of same families. To create the improved image, pre- and post-processing are applied to the fingerprint images. Additionally, it has been noted that the majority of family members have comparable ridge patterns. The assertion that fingerprints carry hereditary relationships is made easier by the premise that fingerprint patterns are genetically determined. Given that they share 50% of the same genes, fingerprint patterns of parents and children exhibit some universal similarities. To authenticate the fingerprints for clinical studies, similar discoveries may also be explored with a varied set of family spreads in a large population area.
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