Authors: Suvarna Aranjo, Neil Pinto, Preet Parekh, Tanay Modi
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The onset of the pandemic brought forth the need to be isolated which prompted companies to adopt the remote working model much more prominently. This sudden switch brought forth a host of problems as people were not used to remote work. To remedy the situation, a host of tools and products gained prominence - Google Meet, Zoom, etc. which allowed people to collaborate remotely. We will be doing a review of the frameworks and technologies that these products use to understand how real-time collaboration works and the advantages and drawbacks of these products.
The need for remote collaboration arose with the arrival of the COVID-19 pandemic which brought We- bRTC to the forefront as people were isolated and had to use tools like Zoom and Google Meet for real-time collaboration. These products use WebRTC as their base to make audio and video communication possible and efficient irrespective of the device streaming audio and video. This paper will give an introduction to WebRTC and its working and also discuss the various models of WebRTC being used. We will also be discussing the challenges faced by WebRTC. Another thing that will be touched upon is a review of collaboration tools that are being currently used.
???????A. Brief Overview of WebRTC
WebRTC implements three APIs:
Instead, WebRTC app developers can choose whatever messaging protocol they prefer, such as SIP or XMPP, and any appropriate duplex (twoway) communication channel. Signaling is used to exchange three types of information:
a. Session control messages: to initialize or close communication and report errors.
b. Network configuration: to the outside world, what’s my computer’s IP address and port?
c. Media capabilities: what codecs and resolutions can be handled by my browser and the browser it wants to communicate with? 
Once the signaling process has completed success- fully, data can be streamed directly peer to peer, between the caller and callee—or if that fails, via an intermediary relay server.
RTCPeerConnection is the WebRTC component that handles stable and efficient communication of streaming data between peers. Below is a WebRTC architecture diagram showing the role of RTCPeerConnection.
B. Models of Multimedia Conferences using WebRTC
???????C. Deploying WebRTC Based Browsers in Small Con- ference Group
D. Signaling Mechanism
WebSocket based connection create P2P bi-directional communication between the Web Server and each ac- tive conference participant. To join conference, Browser should send HTTP request using the appropriate URI. This URI can be obtained using email, Instant messaging system and phone or even by publishing it publically on forums or social web sites. The URI concern the specific conference room and HTTP request will include related information about current participant membership. 
E. Issues faced in WebRTC Video Conferencing
When one goes about applying one of the recog- nized technologies within a totally different ecosystem, it always brings a lot of problems and challenges. The challenges that we are going to discuss, belong to entire web ecosystem where preferably various types of the equipment and device efficiently interact and provide high level services which might be needed in compli- cated scenarios e.g. education
To address the above-mentioned challenges, we are trying to work out the implementation of MCU (Multi- point Control Unit) capable of adapting, redirecting and translating streams of media. While this paper is being written, WebRTC IETF group has already defined almost all of the features of the videoconferencing at the level of protocol and media negotiation. Likewise, the implementation of MCU has to be one of the safe routes since not only it works at the transport layer but also the layers underneath it. 
A Multiple Communication Unit has to redirect the media flows among the people taking part in commu- nication, by only enabling them to gather the data from other participants, acting as the middle point of a matrix. As all of the data will have to go through that Multiple Communication Unit, there can be many operations providing the latest services for the video-conference- based communication. MCU acts as centralized bridge to facilitate the real time communication between various devices from different places.
???????III. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF REAL-TIME COLLABORATION TOOLS
In today’s world, there are many news relating which platform to use for video conferencing. Video conferenc- ing apps are witnessing a huge rise in downloads due to lock-downs across the globe. Video conferencing users are seeing an exponential growth as millions of peo- ple are working remotely due to COVID-19 pandemic. According to a report, video conferencing platforms downloads topped 62 million in the month of March 2020. 
A. Way to a Safe Video Call
Thus, we have analysed the working of the WebRTC framework which is the primary tool used to facilitate real-time collaboration and have also looked at its draw- backs and tried to provide a simple solution to overcome the problem. Also, the various tools being currently used for video conferencing have been analysed and compared based on the features they offer.
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Copyright © 2022 Suvarna Aranjo, Neil Pinto, Preet Parekh, Tanay Modi. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.