: In India, close to regarding two hundredth of the whole population loses their lives because of interrupted health observance system i.e., in most of the hospitals, doctor visits patients either in morning shift or in evening shift or in each shift. What happens if patient\'s health becomes important in between that interval or once a doctor isn\'t on the market with a patient. the solution is a patient could lose her\\his life. thus, to avoid this important situation; we tend to area unit proposing a sensible embedded system device that monitors patients’ health ceaselessly. This project introduces the structure and usage of an IoT based patient observing framework, utilizing different sensors and NodeMCU as the MCU (Master Control Unit). The framework can be utilized to constantly screen the wellbeing parameters of a patient. ECG Monitoring with AD8232 ECG Sensor and MAX30102 BPM sensor is used for sensing temperature and heartbeat rate can be measured from anyplace on the globe utilizing IoT (Internet of Things). IoT is executed, utilizing an ESP-8266, which enables the data to be transmitted flawlessly over the web and mobile app.
With an improvement in technology and miniaturization of sensors, there have been attempts to utilize the new technology in various areas to improve the quality of human life. One main area of research that has seen an adoption of the technology is the healthcare sector. The people in need of healthcare services find it very expensive this is particularly true in developing countries. As a result, this project is an attempt to solve a healthcare problem currently society is facing. The main objective of the project was to design a remote healthcare system. It’s comprised of three main parts. The first part being, detection of patient’s vitals using sensors, second for sending data to cloud storage and the last part was providing the detected data for remote viewing. Remote viewing of the data enables a doctor or guardian to monitor a patient’s health progress away from hospital premises. The Internet of Things (IoT) concepts have been widely used to interconnect the available medical resources and offer smart, reliable, and effective healthcare service to the patients. Health monitoring for active and assisted living is one of the paradigms that can use the IoT advantages to improve the patient’s lifestyle. In this project, I have presented an IoT architecture customized for healthcare applications. The aim of the project was to come up with a Remote Health Monitoring System that can be made with locally available sensors with a view to making it affordable if it were to be mass produced. Hence the proposed architecture collects the sensor data through microcontroller and relays it to the cloud where it is processed and analysed for remote viewing.
A. What is Remote Health Monitoring System ?
Remote health monitoring system is an extension of a hospital medical system where a patient’s vital body state can be monitored remotely. Traditionally the detection systems were only found in hospitals and were characterized by huge and complex circuitry which required high power consumption. Continuous advances in the semiconductor technology industry have led to sensors and microcontrollers that are smaller in size, faster in operation, low in power consumption and affordable in cost.
In recent times, several systems have come up to address the issue of remote health monitoring. The systems have a wireless detection system that sends the sensor information wirelessly to a remote server. Some even adopted a service model that requires one to pay a subscription fee. In developing countries, this is a hindrance as some people cannot use them due to cost issue involved. There is also the issue of internet connectivity where some systems to operate, good quality internet for a real-time remote connection is required. Internet penetration is still a problem in developing countries.
Many of the systems were introduced in the developed countries where the infrastructure is working perfectly. In most cases, the systems are adapted to work in developing countries. To reduce some of these problems there is need to approach the remote detection from a groundup approach to suit the basic minimal conditions presently available in developing countries. A simple patient monitoring system design can be approached by the number of parameters it can detect. In some instances, by detecting one parameter several readings can be calculated. For simplicity considerations parameter detection are:
Single Parameter Monitoring System
In this instance, a single parameter is monitored e.g., Electrocardiogram (ECG) reading. From the ECG or heartbeat detection, several readings can be got depending on the algorithm used. An ECG reading can give the heart rate and oxygen saturation.
2. Multi-parameter monitoring system:
This has multiple parameters being monitored at the same time. An example of such a system can be found in High Dependency Units (HDU), Intensive Care Units (ICU), during the surgery at a hospital theatre or Post surgery recovery units in Hospitals. Several parameters that are monitored include the ECG, blood pressure, respiration rate. The Multiparameter monitoring system basically proof that a patient is alive or recovering. In developing countries, just after retiring from their daily career routine majority of the elderly age group, move to the rural .
II. LITERATURE SURVEY
A number of reviews were done in the past as part of research papers/technical reports on iot based Health Monitoring System.
First System Here, researcher designed health monitoring system using ATmega8 microcontroller with Wireless Body Area Sensor Network (WBASN). In this work, the sensors which are used here are Temperature sensor, Blood pressure sensor, Heart beat sensor. These sensors are placed on the human body which helps to monitor the health condition without disturbing the daily schedule of the patient and these health related parameters are then forwarded to physician’s server using long range wireless technology GSM. Health monitoring system consists of sensors, microcontroller, LCD display and GSM modem to transmit or receive health related data to or from the doctor. Similarly, at the hospital the same GSM modem is used. Hence, GSM modem helps in the establishment of a network between patient’s server and doctor’s server. LCD(Liquid Crystal Display) display is provided to show the instant result to the patient. Here researcher used LM34 as temperature sensor, IR LED and red LED is used for heart rate monitoring and Pressure transducer or the sensor based on piezo-electrical material is used to measure the systolic BP and diastolic BP. Microcontroller reads data as given by the temperature sensor, blood pressure sensor and heart rate sensor and processing it gives the output in the form of digital and it gets directly displayed on LCD or it gets transmitted to the doctor’s server through GSM modem. This system gives exact and instant results with high accuracy which gets directly displayed on LCD. It takes max 4-5 sec to monitor the doctor’s server using GSM wireless technology .This system takes a small amount of time to know the health condition of the patient and then delivers the report to the doctor.
Second System using the same system, health parameters are sended by using RFID reader, Bluetooth, GSM and UMTS. This system gives facility to monitor the blood pressure of patients. The health parameter directly sends to the doctor using GSM and UTMS. Here, a video guide is used. This video guide feature serves the patients age and his blood pressure correctly. This system consists of three parts: Touchpad, remote server and reading of the Tag ID and BPM. For reading the Tag ID and BPM, use a microcontroller unit (MCU) as a kernel. The client touchpad receives the blood pressure measurement (BPM) data of a RFID through Bluetooth. Client touchpad sends the data to the health parameter. Also, these health parameters are directly sent to remote data centers and remote data centers to the doctor using GSM and UMTS wireless technology. Data gets transmitted in the form of the packets. This system helps to store previous data. Similarly, it takes less time to monitor the blood pressure of the patient.
Third System shows the blood pressure monitoring system using microcontroller. This system includes a motor control unit, Microcontroller ATmega328, LCD display. The pressure sensor is directly connected to the cuff, which is inflated or deflated via a motor and valve . ON and OFF switches of the motor are controlled by the microcontroller at the correct time. Due to changes in the ON and OFF switches of the motor, the wrist cuff gets inflated and deflated, this pressure is measured by the pressure sensor. Pressure sensor generates the health parameter in the analog sensor. The processing of analog sensors is done with the help of the microcontroller and gives digital output which is displayed on the LCD or on the Personal computer using RS232. Magneto resistive RAM (MRAM) stores the value of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and is directly connected to the microcontroller. Similarly, there is no need to pump the cuff by hand, all the system is controlled by the microcontroller. It is not required to calculate or observe blood pressure manually. Time consumption is very less compared to the old system.
We used cloud computing mechanism to store information, this data can be stored safely over the time and can be accessed at any moment of time. Cloud processing is additionally helpful to keep update of patient. Specialists and doctors can easily look into the patient reports at the time of emergency and can take appropriate steps accordingly. Hence giving proper guidance at proper time to prevent crisis. The concerned person can deal with patient without their actual physical presence the system automatically creates the diagram of body changes and reports to the doctor about the recent change of evets. The body temperature parameter is so significant that a doctor can easily predict the problem patient is going through and also will save time. The project is very helpful for the people living in remote areas and doesn’t have access to all the medical facilities. This can be signified as a small home clinic where u can just sit and get a regular check-up done.
 Internet of Things for Remote Health Monitoring: A Comprehensive Review\" by Bonomi et al.
 Internet of Things (IoT) in Healthcare: A Comprehensive Survey\" by Alrawais et al. (2018).
 IoT-Based Healthcare Monitoring System: Architecture, Implementation, and Beyond\" by Hussain et al. (2019).
 A Survey of IoT-Based Real-Time Data Processing Approaches for Healthcare Applications\" by Khan et al. (2019).
 Internet of Things (IoT) for Remote Health Monitoring: A Review of Current Applications\" by Pantelopoulos and Bourbakis (2020).
 A Review of Internet of Things (IoT) Applications in Healthcare\" by Abdu et al. (2020).
 A Review on IoT-Based Wearable Sensor Systems for Monitoring Alzheimer\'s Disease\" by Abdullah et al. (2020).
 Emerging Trends in IoT-Based Smart Healthcare Systems: Architecture, Security, and Applications\" by Islam et al. (2021).
 Edge Intelligence in Healthcare: Opportunities, Challenges, and Solutions\" by Yao et al. (2021).
 An IoT-Based Real-Time Health Monitoring System for Remote Cardiac Patients\" by Sathya et al. (2022).
 IoT in Healthcare: A Comprehensive Review of Data Collection, Transmission, and Analytics\" by Zeydan et al. (2023).