Liquid dosage forms are generally found in medicines for aged and paediatrics patients. Though, they have specific advantages, along with fast efficacy due to the devoid of dissolution time and quick absorption in the stomach and intestines than tablets. Liquid formulations have been broadly used in pharmaceutics due to their high dosing adjustability, comfort of swallowing, and rapid onset of action.
Liquid dosage forms are a pharmaceutical preparation in which an active drug is mixed with non active components (solvent, additive). These preparations are widely used due to their better bioavailability than other dosage forms. Liquid dosage forms are prepared by dissolving the active drug in an aqueous or non aqueous solvent or by suspending the active drug into the solvent or by mixing the immiscible liquid with each other.
It can be administered by –Topically (lotions, Ear drops, Eye drops), orally (Syrups, Emulsion, Suspension), Parenterally (intramuscular, intravenous, subcutaneous injection)
A. Advantage of liquid dosage form
It is safer than solid dosage forms.
Bioavailability of liquid dosage form is more than solid dosage form.
It is easy to administer.
On the basis of their phases they are classified into two types- Monophasic & Biphasic
C. Monophasic liquid dosage forms
A liquid preparation that containing two or more components in one phase system.
Syrups:It is aqueous preparation containing 66-85 % sucrose withmedicinal substances, water and flavoring agents. Syrups are sweet, viscous in nature. It is prepared by following method like hot process, percolation process, agitation without heating etc. Example-kedex syrup
2. Mixture:It is a liquid preparation intended orally in which medicament are dissolved in a suitable solvent. It is easy to administer, suitable for insoluble drug. Example-Carminative mixture
3. Elixirs:These are clear, aromatic, hydroalcoholic liquid which is intended orally. They are less sweet and less viscous than syrups.
4. Suspension:Insoluble solid particle dispersed in a liquid medium this type of liquid preparation is known as Suspension. They are biphasic liquid preparation consist continuous phase (liquid) and Discontinuous phase (solid particle). They are intended orally, external application. They are formulated by using following components:- Wetting agent(sodium lauryl sulphate etc), Defloculating agents (Tween, Spans etc.), Flocculation agents (aluminium chloride, citrates etc.), Suspending agent (sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, methyl cellulose etc.), Organoleptic Agents (preservative, coloring agent, Sweetening agent, Flavouring agent).
5. Emulsions:It is abiphasic liquid preparation consist two immiscible liquid, one is dispersion medium (liquid vehicle in which globules is dispersed) and other is dispersed phase (small liquid globules ranges 0.25-25 micrometer). Emulsions are of two types- oil in water and water in oil. They are formulated by using following ingredients- Oil phase (fixed oil, mineral oil, volatile oil etc.), Aqueous phase (purified water), Antioxidants (Tocopherols, BHA etc.), Flavouring agents (orange, pineapple etc.),Coloring agents (tartrazine, erythrosine etc.), Preservetives (benzoic acid,chlorocresol,methyl and propyl paraben etc.), Emulsifying agents (tragacanth, starch, pectin etc.)
The formulation development studies of liquid dosage forms along with the pre-formulation studies include the various liquid formulation, research & the S.O.P handling. These are the important parameter of the pharmaceutical industries without this pharmaceutical industries does not conduct properly and the quality efficiency. This article may help to know about various types of liquid dosage with their preparation. New problems arise during development and it cannot be solve until required efforts with knowledge not met.
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