Authors: Dr. A. H. Ingle, Dilip Patle, Shashank Ghawade, Sharukh Khan, Habib Quraishi, Swapnil Ingole
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A hybrid vehicle uses two or more distinct types of power, such as internal combustion engine + electric motor, e.g. in diesel-electric trains using diesel engines and electricity from overhead lines, and submarines that use diesels when surfaced and batteries when submerged. Other means to store energy include pressurized fluid, in hydraulic hybrids. A water-fuelled car is an automobile that hypothetically derives its energy directly from water. Water-fuelled cars have been the subject of numerous international patents, newspaper and popular science magazine articles, local television news coverage, and websites. The claims for these devices have been found to be pseudoscience and some were found to be tied to investment frauds. These vehicles may be claimed to produce fuel from water on board with no other energy input, or may be a hybrid claiming to derive some of its energy from water in addition to a conventional source (such as gasoline). Water is fully oxidized hydrogen. Hydrogen itself is a high-energy, flammable substance, but its useful energy is released when water is formed. Water will not burn. The process of electrolysis can split water into hydrogen and oxygen, but it takes as much energy to take apart a water molecule as was released when the hydrogen was oxidized to form water. In fact, some energy would be lost in converting water to hydrogen and then burning the hydrogen because some waste heat would always be produced in the conversions. Releasing chemical energy from water, in excess or in equal proportion to the energy required to facilitate such production, would therefore violate the first or second law of thermodynamics.
A hybrid vehicle uses two or more distinct types of power, such as internal combustion engine+ electric motor, e.g. in diesel-electric trains using diesel engines and electricity from overhead lines, and submarines that use diesels when surfaced and batteries when submerged. Other means to store energy include pressurized fluid, in hydraulic hybrids
Hydrogen and HHO generator are seen by many as one of the key solutions for the 21 century, by allowing a clean efficient production of power to reduce air pollution from several primary energy sources such as fossil fuel. Even though energy systems based on hydrogen can build bridges to the future, but the challenge of planning a cost-effective, and efficient transition is hugely difficult. Furthermore, very large capital and human investments will need many years before coming to make a great achievement. However, starting to explore this path result in a more sustainable future. In a fact, hydrogen is not a primary energy source. It is an energy carrier.
Initially, it is produced by using technologies existing energy systems such as the gamification technology based on different conventional primary energy carriers and sources like coal and natural gas, or by building a renewable energy system that is more sustainable and reliable will benefit from solar and wind energy by using electrolysis technologies. Many experiments were carried out to optimize the performance of a dry HHO cell through changing the variety of setups such as alternating the distance between the plates, by using different electrolyte concentrations, and different current values.
The electrolytes with different concentrations, and how much of the current value across the electrolyte to produce hydrogen in a cell are focused by Rusdianasari & Dewi. Abhishek et al have studied the basic properties of gas generated through electrolysis of water and then used this gas in the bike as a fuel supplement with gasoline by mixing it with air. The HHO reactor was made from high grade stainless steel and NaOH was used as an electrolyte. If there is a possibility to produce, hydrogen through water electrolysis by using a Dry HHO Cell and studying its potential by a design, a building, an experiment, and also trying development in the cell to produce much more hydrogen for longer period.
II. PROBLEM STATEMENT
To Implementation in the existing technology and to show the innovative idea on existing system. To make use of HHO cell that is readily available and chipset. To prepare and efficient and cost effective system.
III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
A hybrid automobile is a vehicle that uses a combination of multiple sources of energy. It could be for instance a combustion engine, electric motor and an accumulator, fuel cells, ,electro motor and an accumulator, combustion engine and flywheel etc. to name a few.
Fig a. vehicle
It's the combination of a combustion engine, electromotor and an accumulator that is the most wide spread and effective for LCE. That's why we are going to focus on this concept and will describe its advantages.
The effectiveness of today's combustion engines runs in a range of 30-40%. Gas (petrol) engines' effectiveness is on the bottom on the range while the diesel enginesare somewhat better. This value is mostly based on the effectiveness of the thermodynamic cycle itself which has some clear physical limitations. Therefore we cannot expect to see much of an improvement in the future. The main problem is that the current effectiveness is at its maximum and is reached only when the engine works under optimal conditions.
This effectiveness can therefore be reached only rarely under the normal working conditions and the overall effectiveness then is significantly lower. The extreme case here is an operation in idle position when the engine consumes fuel while the car doesn't perform any activity. As the combustion engine can acceptably perform only at a limited range of RPM the use of transmission is necessary.
The transmission brings another not insignificant energy loss. The number of gears is usually also limited which creates yet another reason why the engine cannot work at its optimum conditions. There are also continuous transmissions but their effectiveness is even somewhat lower.
The picture illustrates a schema of a series hybrid vehicle.
It is clear that the use of LCE in mass production is ideal. It can increase car's effectiveness as well as decrease its weight. More compact design then allows for a less traditional placement of the unit - for instance under the vehicle floor.
IV. LITERATURE SURVEY
We would like to express our gratitude to Madiun State Polytechnic who has provided the opportunity and fully funded lecturers to conduct research so that they can apply their knowledge.
Based on the research that has been done, it can be concluded that: 1) The effect of electrodes with a variation of 2 holes, 4 holes and 9 holes on power performance, production rate, and efficiency of dry cell type HHO generators, namely: a) The dry cell type HHO generator with perforated plate electrodes has different power consumption in each variation, the power consumption tends to increase from the initial minutes to the peak and begins to decrease as the testing time increases and the temperature in the generator electrolyte increases. And the more power holes needed, the more it is needed b) The more holes the greater the production rate that is generated. Due to the more holes, the larger the area of concentration of the voltage so that it speeds up the rate of HHO gas formation. c) The more holes, the greater the efficiency produced and the higher the gas produced. 2) The lowest CO emission is in the variation of hole plate 2, namely 4.40%. Meanwhile, the lowest HC emission is in the variation of hole plate 4, which is 929 ppm.
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Copyright © 2023 Dr. A. H. Ingle, Dilip Patle, Shashank Ghawade, Sharukh Khan, Habib Quraishi, Swapnil Ingole. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.