Authors: Ms. G. Parasakthibala, Mrs. A. S. Monisha
DOI Link: https://doi.org/10.22214/ijraset.2022.46530
Certificate: View Certificate
Fibre is a long, thin strand or thread of material made by weaving or knitting threads together. Fibre is a hair like strand of material. A fibre is the smallest visible unit of any textile product. Fibres are flexible and may be spun into yarn and made into fabric. Natural fibres are taken from animals, vegetables or mineral sources. A few examples of widely used natural fibres include animal fibre such as wool and silk vegetables fibres, especially cotton and flax and asbestos, a mineral. Natural fibers are more important part in our human environment. Natural fibers are ecofriendly and inexpensive which are readily available in nature. In this chapter we discuss about the overview of natural fiber and their characteristic. this paper also deals with the impact of natural fibers over the synthetic fibers and also the application of natural fiber in various fields.
A fibre is commonly understood to be a long hair like object and this notion serves for all ordinary purposes; but the user of fibres requires a clean definition. No material is more common in the world than fibre; it is the form of all vegetable and most animal substances. Life is supreme and original weaver. Flesh is fibre; skin is fibre; muscles are bundles of fibre; leaves, flowers, fruits, stems of grass and bark and wood of tress are all fibres .
Fibre is a class of materials that are continuous filaments are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of threads. They are very important in the biology of both plants and animals, for holding tissues together. They can be spun into filaments, string or rope used as a component of composite or matted into sheets to make products such as paper or felt .
Natural fibres are those that are not synthetic or manmade . Natural fibres can be obtained from plant fibres such as sisal, hemp, bamboo, coir, flax, kenaf, jute, ramie, oil palm, pineapple, banana, cotton etc., as well as from animal source, e.g., wool, silk and chicken feather fibres .
A. Classification of natural fibres
B. Types Of Plant Based Natural Fibres
C. Characteristics Of A Fibre
II. PROPERTIES OF NATURAL FIBRE OVER SYNTHETIC FIBRES
Natural fibre is becoming an important alternative to manmade fibres due to their abundant availability, being economical, recyclable and bio degradable as well as high mechanical strength. A lot of environmental problems will be solved by the use of natural fibres. Natural fibres containing unsaturated polyester matrix is greatly advantageous than those of the unreinforced plastics due of the resulting strength and toughness of the composites. Besides, cellulosic natural fibres are strong enough, light in weight, inexpensive, abundant and renewable . In view of development of economical and environment friendly materials for sustainable products, researchers are trying their best to minimise the use of man-made fibres as much as possible by using natural fibres on account of its benefits like low density, eco-friendliness, biodegradability, and high specific strength and modulus . In addition to this, they have other benefits too such as huge availability at low cost, non-toxic in nature, non-carcinogenic, recyclability and so forth.
Strength and water absorption capacity of these fibres mainly depends upon their constituents such as cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, pectin and wax. Cellulose provides the strength to fibres whereas hemicellulose increases the water absorption capacity .
Fibre reinforced composites have received much attention based on different applications because of the good properties and the advantages found over synthetic fibres. Here natural fibres contain low cost, density and weight, less pollution during production resulting in minimal health hazards and eco-friendly nature. Composites reinforced with natural fibres also have a short lifetime when it comes to degradation with limited environmental damage whereas synthetic fibres have a negative impact due to degradation pollution .
Natural fibres have good absorbency properties while synthetic fibres does not absorbs moistures and these fibres were failed to absorb perspiration. A lot of natural fabrics are extremely breathable and excellent at absorbing excess moisture. This is due to the fibre structure of these fabrics. In most natural fabrics, the fibres are fairly hollow. This allows them to be highly permeable, meaning that any excess heat or odour is passed through the fabric instead of being held in against the body. In contrast, synthetic materials tend to lock in extra heat thus do a very poor job at helping to keep the body at a comfortable temperature. Some synthetic fibres are often prone to skin allergy, because of the dermatological action but the natural fibres gives smooth and soft textures. Natural fabrics, such as wool, silk and cotton, are wonderful because they are naturally hypoallergenic and possess anti-bacterial characteristics. Which makes them perfect for people that may have sensitive skin or allergies. Unlike synthetic materials which have the potential to irritate the skin and lock in unwanted odour .
The fibre reinforced polymer composites are developed primarily using synthetic fibres such as glass, carbon, Kevlar. Etc. But the growth in environmental consciousness, community interest the new environmental regulations and unsustainable consumption of manmade materials, led to thinking of the use of environmentally friendly materials. Owing that view natural fibre is considered as one of the best environmentally friendly materials which have good properties compared to synthetic .
III. APPLICATION OF NATURAL FIBRES IN VARIOUS FIELDS
The applications of natural fibres are growing in many sectors such as automobiles, furniture, packing and construction. This is mainly due to their advantages compared to synthetic fibres, i.e., low cost, low weight, less damage to processing equipment, improved surface finish of moulded parts composite, good relative mechanical properties, abundant and renewable resources . Natural fibres are used in various applications such as building materials, particle boards, insulation boards, human food and animal feed, cosmetics, medicine and for other biopolymers and fine chemicals .
Automotive and aircrafts industries have been actively developing different kinds of natural fibres, mainly on hemp, flax and sisal and bio resins systems for their interior components. High specific properties with lower prices of natural fibre composites are making it attractive for various applications .
Natural fibres reinforced composites are emerging very rapidly as the potential substitute to the metal or ceramic based materials in applications that also include automotive, aerospace, marine, sporting goods and electronic industries . Natural fibre composites exhibit good specific properties, but there is high variability in their properties. Their weakness can and will be overcome with the development of more advanced processing of natural fibre and their composites. Their individual properties should be a solid base to generate new applications and opportunities for bio composites or natural fibre composites in the 21st century “green” materials environment. The exploitation of natural fibre composites in various applications has opened up new avenues for both academicians as well as industries to manufacture a sustainable module for future application of natural fibre composites .
There are several industries such as automotive, construction, energy and aerospace, among others which are being challenged by the society and governments to make products which are more environmentally sound and reduce their dependence on fossil fuels . This type of legislation is a signi?cant driving factor towards the adoption of natural ?bre composites. In this scenario, natural ?bres are an attractive option for industries to meet socio-economic and environmental challenges. Furthermore, the use of natural ?bres would create employment opportunity in rural and less developed regions thus helping in achieving the sustainable development goals .
Natural fibers that are renewable and environmentally friendly source of raw materials to create environmentally friendly products have played an important role in human civilization. Natural fibre is considered as one of the best environmentally friendly materials which have good properties compared to synthetic. Now a days natural fibers are used in all sectors like agriculture, automobile, building construction, insulation boards, medicine, composite materials etc…
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Copyright © 2022 Ms. G. Parasakthibala, Mrs. A. S. Monisha. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Authors : Parasakthibala.G
Paper Id : IJRASET46530
Publish Date : 2022-08-29
ISSN : 2321-9653
Publisher Name : IJRASET
DOI Link : Click Here