Authors: Prof. Afsha Akkalot, Parth Vijaykumar Lashkare, Hemant Patel, Dharmendrasingh Rajpurohit
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The emergence of blockchain technology has paved the way for the development of secured e-voting systems that are transparent, immutable, and tamper-proof. In this survey report, we examine the current trends and future prospects of using blockchain technology for e-voting. We begin by exploring the key features of blockchain technology, including distributed ledger, cryptographic security, and decentralized consensus mechanisms. Next, we discuss the benefits of using blockchain technology for e-voting, including voter anonymity, transparent voting process, and immutable voting records. To gain a better understanding of the current state of the field, we conducted a survey of recent literature on blockchain-based e-voting systems. The survey covers research articles, white papers, and conference proceedings published in the last five years. We analysed the data using statistical software and present our findings on the most commonly used consensus algorithms, cryptographic techniques, and blockchain architectures in e-voting systems. Our survey also highlights the challenges facing the adoption of blockchain-based e-voting systems, including scalability, usability, and regulatory issues. We conclude by discussing the future prospects of blockchain-based e-voting systems and identifying the areas that require further research and development. Overall, this survey report provides valuable insights into the current trends and future prospects of using blockchain technology for e-voting, and will be useful for researchers, policymakers, and practitioners working in this field.
Electronic voting (e-voting) systems have the potential to revolutionize the way we conduct elections by making the process more efficient, transparent, and accessible to a wider range of voters. However, the use of traditional e-voting systems has been marred by concerns over security, privacy, and transparency. In recent years, blockchain technology has emerged as a promising solution to these issues by providing a secure, decentralized, and transparent platform for e-voting.
Several studies have examined the potential of blockchain technology for e-voting systems. For instance, in their paper "A Blockchain Based Voting System", Böhme et al. (2015) proposed a blockchain-based e-voting system that provides end-to-end encryption and a decentralized verification mechanism to ensure the integrity of the voting process. Similarly, in their paper "E-Voting using Blockchain Technology", Kshetri and Voas (2018) argue that blockchain technology can enhance the security, privacy, and transparency of e-voting systems by using cryptographic techniques to ensure the anonymity and integrity of the voting process.
While these studies provide valuable insights into the potential of blockchain technology for e-voting systems, there is still a need for a comprehensive survey of the current trends and future prospects of using blockchain technology for e-voting. In this survey report, we aim to fill this gap by providing a comprehensive overview of the key features, benefits, challenges, and future prospects of using blockchain technology for e-voting systems.
A. Requirement Gathering
Requirement gathering is an essential process that helps in identifying the needs and expectations of stakeholders from the system. In order to gather the requirements for our e-voting system using blockchain, we followed the following steps:
B. System Design
The system design is an important aspect of the methodology that outlines the technical specifications of the proposed e-voting system. The system design is divided into two parts, i.e., architecture design and database design.
The development phase of our research project involved the implementation of the secured e-voting system using blockchain technology. This section outlines the step-by-step process we followed to transform our design into a functional and robust system.
D. Testing and Evaluation
The testing phase of our research project aimed to verify the functionality, reliability, and security of the developed secured e-voting system. Rigorous testing methodologies were employed to ensure that the system meets the defined requirements and operates as expected. This section provides an overview of the testing strategies and techniques utilized during this phase.
III. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE AND FLOWCHART
A. System Architecture
The system architecture of the secured e-voting system using blockchain technology is designed to ensure a robust and transparent voting process. The architecture comprises several interconnected components that work together to facilitate secure and verifiable electronic voting.
At the core of the system lies the blockchain network, which serves as the immutable ledger for recording and storing the votes. The blockchain is decentralized and distributed across multiple nodes, ensuring data integrity and resistance to tampering. Smart contracts, implemented using Solidity programming language, govern the execution of voting operations and enforce the predefined rules and regulations.
The system architecture incorporates a separate database for administrative purposes, keeping the sensitive data segregated from the public-facing web application. The database stores flagged data and enables the authorized administrators to review and handle any identified issues. This ensures the accuracy and integrity of the voting results.
B. Flow Chart
a. Users access the web application and initiate the registration process.
b. They provide the necessary identification details and are verified against the eligibility criteria.
c. Upon successful verification, their credentials are stored securely in the system.
2. Vote Casting
a. Registered users log in to the system using their credentials.
b. They are presented with the list of candidates or options for the ongoing election.
c. Users make their selection and confirm their vote.
d. The vote transaction is securely recorded on the blockchain network.
3. Verification and Tallying
a. After the voting period ends, the system verifies the authenticity and validity of each vote.
b. Smart contracts execute the verification process, checking for duplicate votes or any tampering attempts.
c. Verified votes are tallied, and the results are calculated.
4. Result Generation
a. The calculated results are securely stored on the blockchain network.
b. Authorized individuals can access the system and retrieve the election results.
c. The results are displayed on the user interface, providing transparency and accountability.
V. FUTURE WORK
As the project progresses, we can conclude that the development of a secured e-voting system using blockchain technology is a promising solution to the challenges faced by traditional voting systems. By leveraging the features of blockchain, such as security, transparency, and decentralization, we can ensure the integrity and trustworthiness of the democratic process. We have made significant progress in the development of our e-voting system, including designing and implementing a blockchain-based architecture and creating a Solidity program that ensures the security of the voting data. However, there are still challenges to overcome, such as ensuring accessibility and usability for all voters, and addressing regulatory and legal barriers. As we continue to progress with the project, we must remain vigilant in addressing these challenges and incorporating feedback from stakeholders and experts. Collaboration and coordination with policymakers, election commissions, and other stakeholders will be critical to ensure that the final product meets the needs and requirements of all parties involved. Overall, we are confident that our project will contribute to the advancement of the field of e-voting systems and blockchain technology, and we look forward to seeing the impact of our work on the democratic process.
 Böhme, R., Christin, N., Edelman, B., & Moore, T. (2015). A blockchain-based voting system. In Financial Cryptography and Data Security (pp. 556-570). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.IEEE, “Missing Data Analysis in Regression,” 2022.  Kshetri, N., & Voas, J. (2018). E-Voting using blockchain technology. In Blockchain and Applications (pp. 219-236). Springer, Cham.  Agrawal, R., Kumar, S., & Sharma, M. (2018). A Blockchain Based E-Voting System for Elections. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science, 9(2), 45-49.  Kalra, A., & Sharma, M. (2019). Hybrid e-voting system using blockchain and homomorphic encryption. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT),
Copyright © 2023 Prof. Afsha Akkalot, Parth Vijaykumar Lashkare, Hemant Patel, Dharmendrasingh Rajpurohit. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.