Accident analysis studies aim at the identification of high rate accident location, safety deficient areas and the accidents prone zones. For this purpose the road accident data for seven consecutive years, pertaining for a city has to be used. The road geometry will be measured in accident prone location to find out the cause of accident, based on these result, suggestion are to be provided to reduce the frequency of accidents at that particular place. Accidents prediction is done by regressing traffic volume with accident data to obtain an equation which could apprehend the forth coming accidents in the future. Preventive measures regarding the improvement of traffic condition for minimizing accidents rate are suggested
In countries as India we usually can easily get a diverse traffic i.e. a traffic flow constituting of all the kind of vehicles as cycle, car, rickshaw, bus etc. In Indian cities the share of non-motorized transport (NMT) at peak hours is just about more than fifty per cent. This figure is actually greater in small-sized cities and medium-. Various cities have diverse patterns of NMT use. Every public transportation mode of transportation involves access trips by NMT at every end. So, no motorized form of heavy traffic plays a really crucial part in meeting travel demand in nations as India.
The flow of heterogeneous or mixed traffic is pretty difficult. This diverse flow of cars causes numerous issues as disputes at intersections when amount of non-motorized vehicle increases, when number of non-motorized vehicles boosts it impacts the speed and also flow of some other automobiles. It considerably lowers or lessens the capability too results in different security issues. Therefore there ought to be a standalone track for flow of non-motorized traffic as widely used in different evolved counties as Usa, in lands as India this practically not possible. Really in that situation a good research of non-motorized vehicle attributes must be accomplished along with research of exactly how these NMV adversely affects the diverse traffic
The main aim of the study is to examine the credibility of signal less traffic junction given in IRC for the present roadway and traffic condition. In view of the main aim of the study, the following objectives are
To study the causes of accidents and suggest corrective measures at potential location.
To evaluate existing design.
To compute the financial losses incurred.
The increase in traffic across the globe has resulted in the increase in the number of accidents on roads. This has resulted in the study of the reasons for accidents and also the factors which cause them. the factors affecting the accident rate have been studied and also how much they contribute to the accident rate has been found out using regression analysis and analysis of variance. he accident rate has been found out by regression analysis for various geometric features of road such as horizontal radius, super elevation, K-value, vertical grade, visibility, and vertical arc length, rate of change of super elevation and accident rate.
The findings show that the accident rate is highly influenced by the factors such as super elevation, horizontal radius, in case of plain and rolling terrain.
IV. GEOMETRIC FACTORS OF ROADS
Terrain is classified as the following depending on the slope of the land.
Slope of location (%)
Less than 10
Greater than 10 up to 25
Greater than 25 up to 60
Greater than 60
A. Accident Rate
It is the ratio between number of accidents in a year and number of vehicles with length of study corridor in that year. It is expressed as crashes per million vehiclekms of travel.
AR = Accident Rate expressed as crashes per 100 million vehicle-kms of travel
C = Total number of crashes in the study period
V = Traffic volumes using Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT)
N = Number of years of data
L = Length of the roadway in km
The data is of Annual average daily traffic and crashes are obtained from the respective area with which they are concerned and the analysis is carried out. The results of the analysis are further explained below.
V. ANALYSIS OF GEOMETRIC PARAMETERS
A. Horizontal Radius
The number of crashes within range of radius are counted and accident rate has been calculated for the respective range of radius and histogram is plotted as shown below. From the data we can say that we could observe a significant change in the accident rate and that this should be given importance while design of roads. Also for small values of radius the value of accident rates are high which proves the fact that for steep curves the probability of accidents is more than that of the curves with larger radii.
VI. RESULTS OF ANALYSIS
A. Manmade Features
I have studied here how a driver gets disturbed due to the presence of some unwanted things on the road/vicinity of the road.
The term “manmade features” mainly refers to any object on the side of the road that, by virtue of its placement and structure, results in or is likely to cause, a maximum probability of vehicular damage, occupant injury or fatality.
In my case I have considered three features such as roadway obstacles, obstacles very near to road and posters though it will not cause obstruction, but it can affect human’s mind).
Our main aim is to consider these factors and analyze it using some video data and and then analyzed it through regression.
In this study the study corridor is Site area. The section of 60 km length is chosen and studied for the geometric features of the road such as horizontal radius, super elevation, K-value, Visibility and others and the analysis is done. Hence for Location which is of plain and rolling terrain the geometric features that influence accident rate more are horizontal radius, K-value, Superelevation and visibility. Hence while designing a road in plain and rolling terrain these geometric features namely Horizontal radius, K-value, Superelevation and visibility has to be given more importance.
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