Authors: Pradyumna Sahoo, Srichandan Sarangi, Jeeban Ku. Mallik, Anima Tirkey, Chitrabhanu Sahoo
Certificate: View Certificate
In the current scenario the growth of a nation is totally depends upon the road infrastructure and connectivity of that nation. So, at the same time it’s equally important to construct sustainable and environment friendly roads in the country. This study compares the applications of novel surveying technologies for road surface mapping by total Stations and design of flexible pavement by using IIT pave. This project is on GIFT college Gate to Khordha - Chandaka Road. This is the road that connect our college and it is around 300 m stretch. In particular, a Leica TCRP 1203 instruments was used for surveying. This study deals with issues of road surveying under light traffic condition, the safety of surveyors, work methodology, optimization of surveying time, traffic volume study during 8.00-9.00am and 3.30-4.30pm. The aspects of data processing, assessment, traffic analysis, flexible pavement design as per IRC:37-2018 are also handled. Possible reasons for detected discrepancies between different approaches are discussed in detail. The methods in question both allow the accurate determination of paving material volumes that should be milled off the upper layer of the road surface and the volume of the filling material required to achieve a smooth road surface. However, this study evaluates the use of conventional surveying methods such as total station surveying in road surface mapping and design of flexible pavement (code IRC: 37) as well as the material evaluation. Now-a-days, handling the waste from different industry is a challenge. So, this study also evaluates the sustainability of waste material to construct the flexible pavement inside the college campus. Software used IIT pave, AutoCAD, Staad Pro.
The purpose of this report is to present the design of a flexible pavement for a bike parking based on a survey and analysis conducted in a particular area. The report outlines the finding of the survey, analysis, and design process, including the methodology, materials and standards used. The final design is based on the results of the survey and analysis, taking into consideration the anticipated traffic volumes, environmental condition, and local regulations.
a. Distance measuring instrument (EDM).
b. An angle measuring instrument (Theodolite).
c. A simple microprocessor.
II. FUNCTION PERFORMED BY T.S
Total Stations, with their microprocessors, can perform a variety of functions and computations, depending on how they are programmed. The capabilities vary with different instruments, but some standard computations include:
a. Averages multiple angle measurements.
b. Averages multiple distance measurements.
c. Computes horizontal and vertical distances.
d. Corrections for temp, pressure, and humidity.
e. Computes inverses, polars, resections.
f. Computes X, Y and Z coordinates.
Because the Total Station contains delicate electronic components they are not as rugged as ordinary Theodolite. They must be packed and transported carefully, handled gently and carefully removed from their cases.
The setting of Total Station over the station mark is similar to an ordinary Theodolite. This includes
Total Stations are controlled with entries made either through their built-in keyboards or through the keyboards of hand-held data collectors. Details for operating each individual total station vary somewhat and therefore are not described here.
The accuracy achieved with total station is mainly depends on operator procedure of Careful centering and levelling of the instrument
Tribrachs must provide a snug fit without slippage. Optical plummets that are out of adjustment cause instruments to be set up erroneously over the measurement point. The prism poles should be perfectly vertical and prism should be well fitted on that. Prisms should be checked frequently to determine their constants.
III. APPLICATIONS OF T.S
There are many other facilities available, the total station can be used for the following purposes.
IV. OBJECTIVES AND REQUIREMENTS OF THE PAVEMENT
V. TYPES OF PAVEMENTS
Based on the structural behaviour, pavements are generally classified into the following three categories:
A. Flexible Pavement
Flexible pavements are those which are flexible in their structural action under the loads. Some important pictures of these pavements are.
Flexible pavements consist of the following components:
a. Soil sub grade
b. Sub base course
c. Base course
d. Surface course
Bituminous concrete, granular materials with or without bituminous binder, WBM, soil aggregate mixes etc.., are common examples of flexible pavements.
Flexible pavements are commonly designed using empirical chart or equations. There are also semi empirical and theoretical methods for the design of flexible pavements.
B. Rigid Pavement
Rigid pavements are those which possess noteworthy flexural rigidity.
Rigid pavement consists of the following components:
a. Cement Concrete slab
b. Base course
c. Soil sub grade
Rigid pavements are made of Portland cement concrete either plain, reinforced or prestressed. The plain cement concrete is expected to take up about 40kg/cm2 flexural stress. These are designed using elastic theory, assuming the pavement as an elastic plate resting over an elastic plate resting over an elastic or viscous foundation.
C. Semi-Rigid Pavement
Wheel bonded materials like pozzolanic concrete, lean concrete or soil cement are used, then the pavement layer has considerably high flexural strength then the common flexible pavement is called a semi- rigid pavement.
These materials have low resistance to impact and abrasion and are therefore used with flexible pavement surface course.
VI. FUNCTION OF PAVEMENT COMPONENTS
A. Soil Subgrade
a. California bearing ratio test
b. California resistance value test
c. Triaxial compression test
d. Plate bearing test
B. Sub Base And Base Courses
a. Preventing pumping
b. Protecting the sub grade against frost action
C. Wearing Course
VII. FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE DESIGN OF PAVEMENTS
Pavements design consists of two parts:
The various factors to be considered for the design of pavements are:
a. Design wheel load
b. Sub grade soil
c. Climatic factors
d. Pavement component material
e. Environment factors
VIII. DESIGN OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT
Various approaches for flexible pavement design may be classified into three broad groups:
a. These are based on physical properties and strength parameters of soil sub grade.
b. The group index method, CBR method, Stabilimeter method and Mc load method etc…., are empirical methods.
2. Semi empirical methods or semi theoretical methods: These methods are based on stress strain function and experience.
3. Theoretical methods: These are based on mathematical computations. For example, Burmister method is based on elastic two-layer theory.
IX. GROUP INDEX METHOD
D.J Steel suggested the thickness requirements with the Highway Research Board method based on the group index values in 1945. Group index value is an arbitrary index assigned to the soil types in numerical equations based on the percent fines, liquid limit and plasticity index.
GI values of soil vary in the range of 0 to 2. The higher the GI value, weaker is the soil sub grade and for a constant value of traffic volume, the greater would be the thickness requirement of the pavement.
The traffic volume in this method is divided into three groups:
Traffic volume (commercial vehicles)
No. of vehicles / day
Less than 50
50 to 300
X. DESIGN STEPS
Initially, the group index value is calculated for the soil sub grade based on the following formula:
GI = 0.2a + 0.005ac + 0.01bd
a = percentage of material passing through IS 200 (0.075mm) sieve, is more than 35 and less than 75 (0 to 40)
b = percentage of material passing through IS 200 (0.075mm) sieve, is more than 15 and less than 55 (0 to 40)
c = liquid limit more than 40 and less than (0 to 20)
XI. CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO METHOD
XII. DESIGN OF PAVEMENT USING CBR METHOD: IRC
10 to 30%
30 to 60%
5. The top 50cm of sub grade should be compacted at least up to 95 to 100% of proctor density.
6. Following formula may be used in case estimating future heavy vehicles in view of growth rate for design:
7. The design thickness is considered applicable for single axle loads up to 8200 kg and tandem axle up to 14500 kg for higher axle loads, the thickness is further increased.
8. When sub base course material contains substantial proportion of aggregate size above20mm, the CBR value of the material would not be valid for the design of subsequent layers above them.
The CBR method gives the total thickness requirement of the pavement above a subgrade and this thickness value would remain same irrespective of the quality of materials used in the component layers. Thus, the component of materials should be judiciously choosen for durability and economy.
XIV. OVERVIEW OF SURVEY WORK
XV. METHODOLOGY FOR PAVEMENT DESIGN
A. Collection of Samples
Three samples of soils had been collected in the location of the site (work).
B. Types of Tests
The different types of tests conducted on the samples are:
a. Liquid limit
b. Plastic limit
c. Specific gravity
d. Sieve analysis
2. Engineering Properties
a. Standard Proctor test
XVI. CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO (CBR) TEST
The CBR test is a penetration test developed by the California division of highways, as a method evaluating the stability of soil sub-grade and other flexible highway materials. The test results have been correlated with the pavement thickness requirements for highways and airfields. The CBR test may be conducted in the laboratory on a prepared specimen in a mould or in-situ in the field.
1) In this project work, an attempt is made to incorporate latest techniques of geometric design, pavement design for a bike parking which lies within the premises of GIFT college, BBSR. The IRC specifications are based on rational thinking, the proposed design is safe in both geometrics as well as pavement design. 2) It is also proposed to design a flexible pavement by Group Index method and CBR method. Some more methods are available in the design of flexible pavement, which are much advanced like California resisting value method, Mc leod method, Triaxial method and Burnister method. Because of the limitations of time and scope, only GI method and CBR method are adopted. 3) To have a practical concept of estimation analysis, an attempt is made to estimate the quantities of each work of flexible pavement. 4) Today total station (TS) is used for many tasks within different applications, for example, geodesy, engineering, architectural and mining surveys and documentation of cultural heritage with different accuracy level depending on the needed requirements. 5) The purpose of this is work was to evaluate and compare accuracy, precision and time expenditure of total station surveying method. 6) The project area is the parking lot close to Main gate, Gift college. To accomplish the objectives of the thesis, three major tasks have been performed. 7) 1. A network of 14 control points was established with high precision (l mm) with total station and served as a reference or established value.
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Copyright © 2023 Pradyumna Sahoo, Srichandan Sarangi, Jeeban Ku. Mallik, Anima Tirkey, Chitrabhanu Sahoo. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.