Authors: Harsh Joshi, Dr. Savita Maru
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Due to sloping land and high seismically active zones, designing and construction of multistory buildings in hilly regions is always a challenge for structural engineers. This review paper focuses to establish a review study on the Possible Types of building frame configuration in the hilly region and he behavior of Such building frames under seismic loading conditions, and (3) The recent research and developments to make such frames less vulnerable to earthquakes. This paper concludes that the dynamics characteristics of such buildings are significantly different in both horizontal and vertical directions, resulting in the center of mass and center of stiffness having eccentricity at point of action and not vertically aligned for different floors. When such frames are subjected to lateral loads, due to eccentricity it generates torsion in the frame. Most of the studies agree that the buildings resting on slanting ground have higher displacement and base shear compared to buildings resting on plain ground and the shorter column attracts more forces and undergoes damage when subjected to earthquake.
Construction on sloping land in hilly regions is becoming increasingly prevalent due to the unavailability of flatlands. This has created a major challenge for structural engineers with regard to structure design, due to encountered difficulties during the implementation of projects, both for the structure and the soil. Construction on sloping land is not subject to any Indian standard codes in India. However, Hilly regions are prone to landslides, the threat is similar to an earthquake. If there is a rapid movement of a large mass of earth, it can cause extensive damage to the structures. Moreover, due to the rising rates of population growth in some cities in India, there is a demand to construct buildings with multiple floors. Furthermore, construction on sloping land is increasingly considered, mainly due to a shortage of available flatlands for building.
The necessity of seismic studies for building in hilly region -
A. The Possible Types of Building Frame Configuration in the Hilly Region.
After reviewing several papers which deal with the structural studies under seismic loads. Authors find two common terminologies (type of building in the hilly region) : they are step back and set back set building models. (refer figure -1 a&b)
B. The Behavior of Such Building Frames under Seismic Loading Conditions.
C. The Recent Research and Developments to Make Such Frames less Vulnerable to Earthquakes.
2. S. K. Deshmukh, Farooq. I. Chavan (2015): The objective of the study is to analyze the sloping floor of the RCC building, since these buildings differ from those of levels, they are irregular variations along the vertical and horizontal planes. The experimental method used here for seismic analysis is the linear static method for seismic analysis of simple 6-story G + buildings as well as sloping buildings. In these cases, the structural analysis is performed mathematically with STAAD. Pro initially flat, they are very irregular and asymmetrical in the horizontal and vertical planes and are subject to torsion and torsion forces, this leads to severe damage in earthquakes due to ground movements. Floor with a floor of 20m x 9m analyzed, which is later compared with the analysis of a similar building on a slope.
3. A. S. Swathi et al. (2015): Studied on “Seismic Performance of Buildings on Sloping Grounds”. In mountainous areas, buildings are built on sloping terrain. When mountainous areas fall under seismic zones, these buildings are very prone to earthquakes. This is because the pillars on the first floor are of different heights, so the pillar at one end is a short pillar and the pillar at the other end is a long pillar. If the building has an open ground floor, the seismic vulnerability increases even more. This article deals with the comparison of the seismic behavior of buildings with soft floors on hillside properties and buildings with soft floors that have been modernized with wall panels. The objective of the article is to check if the seismic behavior of the structure improves when it is updated with a wall disc.
4. Narayan Kalsulkar, Satish Rathod (2015): Generally, building frames are analyzed for gravity loads in vertical direction and lateral loads like earthquake load and wind load in lateral direction. The analysis of structure depends on idealization of geometry of structure and idealization of load system on the structure. The behavior of buildings during earthquakes depends upon the distribution of mass and stiffness in both horizontal and vertical planes of the buildings. General behavior is shattered when the structure has irregularities. These kinds of irregularities are especially seen in hilly regions, where the structure rests on the sloping ground. In the present study, the response spectrum method is carried out on the type of structure that rests on the sloping ground. Building frames which occur in hilly regions are narrowed down to two basic formats such as step back frames and step back-set back frames and dynamic responses have been studied for various building configurations.
5. Nagarjuna, Shivakumar B. Patil et al (2017): Structures are generally erected on level ground; However, due to the lack of flat terrain, construction work began on sloping land. There are two types of building configurations on sloping terrain: one is a step back and the other is a step back. In this study, a 10-storey G + RCC building with a 10 to 40 degree slope was taken into account for the analysis. A comparison was made with the building on level ground (reverse). The building was modeled and analyzed with the ETABS structural analysis tool in order to examine the effects of different column heights on the lower story and the effects of wall panels at different positions during the earthquake. The results were compared with the results of the building with and without wall panels. The seismic analysis was performed by linear static calculation and the response spectrum analysis were performed according to IS: 1893 (Part 1): 2002. The results were obtained in the form of upper floor displacement, drift, base shear and time frame. It is observed that the short pillar is more affected during the earthquake. The analysis showed that the design with a gap and wall panels attached to the corner of the building is suitable for the construction of the building
6. Shivakumar Ganapati et al (2019): In paper “Pushover analysis of R.C frame structure with floating column on sloping ground”. They considered the 3-bay model with 10-story buildings, each of which measures 5 m in the X direction and 5 m in the Y direction. The floor height is 3 m. The beam size is 0.3 x 0.45 m and the column size is 0.6 x 0.85 m. The slab has a thickness of 0.125 m. The building will be located in seismic zone 5 with a central floor. The floor covering of 1 kN/m2 and the payload of 3 kN /m2 are taken into account and the M-25 and M-30 concert quality and the Fe-500 steel quality are assumed for the investigation. These models were analyzed using the pushover analysis method in ETABS. They observed that when building upside down on sloped terrain, the maximum displacement decreases compared to building upside down on sloped terrain without a floating column. From this, they concluded that buildings with floating columns at the corners of each story performed poorly compared to other cases. Therefore, the provision of floating columns in the corners should be considered a critical case, thus requiring special attention.
7. Tamboli Nikhil Vinod et al (2020): In paper “Seismic behavior of multi-storied R.C.C. buildings resting on sloping ground and bracing system”. They looked at the only buildings with CR frames that were considered for the analysis. The considered buildings (8-12 floors) without basement, wall panels. The contribution of the infill walls is not considered integral with the RC frames. The unscheduled effect of masonry walls is neglected in the analysis. The influence of the load-bearing foundation medium on the movement of the structure leads to an interaction of the soil structure, but this effect cannot be taken into account in the seismic analysis for structures that rest on rocks or materials similar to the rocks. The flexibility of the soil membranes is neglected and a rigid membrane is considered. The calculation assumes that the base of the column is solid. Side effect P: shrinkage and creep are not taken into account. The contribution of the infill wall to stiffness was not taken into account. The load of the infill wall was taken into account. The story shear for first stories step back without bracings and step-set frames are less than step back with bracing frames and regular building on plain ground.
A. Compared to set-bake-set building, Step back buildings produce higher base-shear, higher time period, higher top storey displacement. During seismic excitation Step-back buildings are more prone to damage. B. The short columns attract more seismic forces and are worst affected during seismic excitation. C. Special precaution should be given to the strength, stiffness and ductility demanded of a short column. D. Response of step back buildings under earthquake load is such that it distributes uneven shear force in the frame due to eccentricity, building frame subjects to torsional moment. E. Many research papers concluded set-back buildings are more favored on sloping ground. F. The presence of infill and shear wall influences the behavior of structure by reducing storey displacement and storey drifts considerably, but may increase the base shear, hence special attention should be given in design to reduce base shear. G. The greater number of bays are found to be better under seismic condition, as the number of bays increases, time period and top storey displacement decreases in hill slope buildings.
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