Authors: Ms. Gayatri V. Gannewar, Mr. Kundan J. Tiwari
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Siddha is one of the ancient medical systems in India considered as the mother medicine of ancient Tamils/Dravidians in south India. Siddha system of medicine is as old as mankind and dominated the civilazation of the southern penisula of India .There are some people whom claim that Ayurveda is the oldest medical system, but from the research done with the help of available historical data, it is evident that Siddha system of medicine is much older and has more history than even Ayurveda .Not only is this system the oldest, this is the medical system with lots of specialities far outweigh the Ayurvedic medicine. Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine, remains the most ancient yet living traditions. Although India has been successful in promoting its therapies with more research and science-based approach, it still needs more extensive research and evidence base; increased side effects, lack of curative treatment for several chronic diseases like, cancer. Disorders of the Musculoskeletal system affect all ages and ethnic groups.it also the Coronavirus diseases 2019(COVID-19) pandemic cause by the severe Acute Respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-coV2) is a massive threat to public health word wide. India is a peninsula of herbal hub, in which Siddha system of medicine has flourished as an englightment in the field of Medicine. Currently medicinal plant have become the per amount source of drug discovery in research for treating diverse from of disease including Cancer. Food is the major source for serving the Nutritional needs but with growing modernization some traditional ways are being given up. This review gives an overview of the Ayurvedic system of medicine and its rule in traditional medicine in order to overview of the Medicine in order to overcome malnutrition and related disorders Siddha is a great subject and explains a reputed indigenous medical and health system.
Siddha System of Medicine is one of the traditional systems of medicine prevalent in South India. The classical siddha system mentions 4448 diseases that are development by the dearangement of three humor (vali, Azhal, and Aiyam.) Theses diseases are diagnosed by clinical examination and eight-fold examination (Envagaithervu) which includes the tools such as Naa (Tongue), Niram (colour), Mozhi (speech) Vizhi (Eyes), Naadi (palse diagnosis) sparisam (sensation), Malam (stool), Moothiram (Urine) etc. and treated with siddha sasthric Medicines (SSM). Siddha system was developed by Sridhar`s. Sridhar`S are super human being. According to them physical body plays an Important role in our life. It becomes our duty to keep it pure and perfect by regulating energy forces exiting in every individual, supplying necessary fuel to achieve proper balance, which is health and avoid Imbalance which is illness. The Siddhas were those who had renounced the world after experiencing its instability and uncertainly. They practiced the eight kinds of yogas and wrought great miracles, imbued with divine power. They kept their body unpolluted and unwrecked and lived subterranean lives in samathi for year.
The future of human society depends on the ability of children to achieve their optimal physical growth and psychological development. Early childhood development is considered to be most important phase in child‘s life which determine the quality of health human being, learning and behaviour across the life span, particularly during toddler stage. It is a period of great opportunity but also easily prone to many disease, so proper child care should be taken. 1,2
Kuzhanthai Maruthuvam is one among the treasures of Siddha system exclusively dealing with disease which affects children. It is the collection of abundant medicine that pacifies the deranged humour paving way for healthy childhood thus laying a concreate pillan for healthy society. Children between age 1 to 3 are easily prone to disease due to dietary habit of mother or of the child, if the baby has started consuming solid foods. These days working women may find difficult to maintain good feeding frequency so as to fulfill the child`s need as they are not available to feed often when the child requires , which leads to supplementary foods and increased the chance of indigestion. Other than this the altered food habit of the mothers also causes indigestion. Hence much care is really essential to prevent as well as to cure digestion problems in children. Manthemis one of the diseases mentioned in Balavagadam and it is classified into 21types it illustrate that when mother feeds baby after having foods like mangoes, jack fruit and oily foods etc. may affect child`s health mentally and physically.3,4
India is known for its traditional medicinal systems- Ayurveda, Siddha, and Unani. Medical systems are found mentioned even in the ancient Vedas and other scriptures. The Ayurvedic concept appeared and developed between 2500and 500 in India1,2. The literal meaning of Ayurvedic is “science of life” because ancient Indian system of health care focused on views of man and his illness. It has been pointed out that the positive health means metabolically well balanced human beings. Ayurveda is also called the “science of longevity” because it offers a complete system to live a long healthy life. It offers programs to rejuvenate the body through diet and nutrition. It offers treatment methods to cure many common disease such is food allergies, which have few modern treatments treatments. Howerver, one should be aware that Ayurvedic nutrition is not a “magic bullet” system but requires the full participation of the patient to succeed. It is an interactive system that is user-friendly and educational. It teaches the patient to become responsible and self-empowered. Ayurveda is not a nutritional system for those seeking anescape or excuse to further abuse their body or mind.it is a system for empowerment, a system of freedom and long life. Food is the major source for serving the nutritional needs, but with growing modernization some traditional methods are being given up. Hence, the modern foods habits are affecting the balanced nutrition. There is an ever widening gap in nutrient intake due to which normal life is no longer normal. However, affluence of working population with changing lifestyles and reducing affordabilty of sick care, in terms of time and money involved, are some of the forces that are presently driving people towards thinking about their wellness.
Peptic ulcers are a prevelent disease, and each year peptic ulcer diseases(PUD) affects four million people around the world , the pathophysiology of PUD involves an imbalance between offensive factors (Acid, Pepsin, and H. pylori) and defensive factors (mucin, prostaglandins, Bicarbonate, Nitric oxide and Growth factors).considering the several side effects (importence, gynaecomastia and haematopoeitic changes) of modern pharmacological agents, indigenous drugs possessing fewer side effects might better treat peptic ulcers sans side effects.5,6
II. BASICS OF SIDDHA MEDICINE
The basic concepts of the siddha medicine are almost similar to Ayurveda. As per siddha medicine various psychological and physiological function of the body are attributed to the combination of seven elements.
Like Ayurveda, this system believes that all object in the universe including human body are composed of five basic elements namely, earth, water, fire, air, sky. The food, which the human body takes and the drugs it uses are all, made of these five elements. The proportion of the elements presents in the drugs vary and their preponderance or otherwise is responsible for certain actions and therapeutic results. As in Ayurveda, This system also considers the human body as a conglomeration of three humours, seven basic tissues and the waste product of the body such as faeces, urine and sweat. The food is considered to be basic building material of human body which gets processed into humours, body tissues and waste product. The equilibrium of humours is considered as health and its disturbance or imbalance leads to disease or sickness. This system also deals with the concept of the salvation in life. The exponets of this system considered achievement of this state is possible by medicines and mediation.7,8
III. CONCEPT OF DISEASE AND THEIR CAUSE
The siddha system is capable of treating all types of disease other than emergency cases. In general this system is effective in treating all types of skin problems particularly psoriasis, STD, Urinary tract infections, diseases of liver and gastro intestinal tract, general debility, postpartum anaemia, diarrhoea and generals fevers in addition to arthritis and allergic disorders. Diagnosis and treatment. The diagnosis of diseases involve identifying it causes. Identifications of causative factors is through the examination of pulse, urine, eyes, study of voice, colour of body ,tongue and the status of the digestive system. The system has worked out details procedure of urine examination which includes study of it’s colour, smell, density, quantity and oil drop spreading pattern. It holistic in approach and the diagnosis involves the study of person as a whole as well as his disease.9,10
According to their mode of application the siddha medicine could be categorized into two classes:
a. Internal medicine and
b. External medicine
Internal medicine was used through the oral route and further classified into32 categories based on their from, methods of preparation, shelf life, etc.1 External medicine includes certain from drug and also certain application like nasal, eye and ear drop and also certain procedures like leech application. The internal medicines are 32 in number. They includes medicines with short life period to medicine which could be used even for hundreds of years. The metalic preparation that could be preserved and used for longer duration are considered as higher medicines. They act even in very small quantity and are capable of curing chronic illness. 5,11
IV. OSTEOARTHRITIS AND OSTEOPOROSIS
Disorders of the musculoskeletal system affect all ages and ethnic groups. Joint diseases may arise from processes affecting bones, joint muscles, or connective tissues such as skin and tendon. The principle manifestations are pain and impairment of locomotor or function. Disease of musculoskeletal system tend to be more common in women and more increasing age. Two most common disorders are osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. Osteoarthritis is the most common type of arthritis and affects up to 80%, of people over the age 75. Osteoporosis is the most common bone disease and affects50%, of men by their eighth decade. Disease of musculoskeletal system are the most common cause of physical disability in older people and account for one-third of physical disability at all ages .7,12
Nowadays the management of most of the joint disorders is not completely satisfied with various kind of medical system in global wide. This articles briefly postulates how far the siddha system contributes in joint disorders in preventive and curative aspects as well as it help to find the gap in joint disorders and its management and help to fill the gap in futures.13
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