In the present day scenario, the energy consumption awareness plays an important role as its demand is growing day by day. Huge differences in energy production and consumption urges the need to reduce the power wastage. The prepaid electricity system proposed in this paper aims at reducing the wastage of power due to its theft and control its usage on the consumer side. This increases the overall efficiency of the power system. The RFID card enables a consumer to utilize the energy for which he has paid. A microcontroller continuously checks if his balance is within the threshold limit and he is notified when his balance goes below the limits. Once it exceeds the threshold value, the supply is automatically cut off. The user can then recharge by making an online payment whenever necessary. The LCD continuously shows the units of energy consumed.
Every month we can see a person standing in front of our house from Electricity board, whose duty is to read the energy meter and handover the bills to the owner of that house. According to that reading we have to pay the bills. The main drawback of this system is that person has to go area by area and he has to read the meter of every house and handover the bills. The present billing system is minimally able to detect power theft and even when it does it is at the end of the month. Also, the distribution company is facing many problems in terms of losses. The distribution company is unable to keep track of the changing maximum demand for domestic consumers. The consumer is facing problems like receiving due bills for bills that have already been paid as well as poor reliability of electricity supply and quality even if bills are paid regularly. The remedy for all these problems is to keep track of the consumers load on a timely basis, which will help assure accurate billing, track maximum demand, and detect online theft. These are all the features to be taken into account for designing an efficient energy billing system. The main motive of this system is pay before use. The main objective is to minimize the illegal usage of electricity, reduce power wastage due to its theft and to control the usage of power on the consumer side and thus increase the overall efficiency of power system. The conventional energy meters have not been replaced, but a small modification on the already installed meters can change the existing meters into prepaid meters, so these meters are very cheap
II. PREPAID ENERGY METERS
The main components of this system are Microcontroller Arduino Nano, RFID Card and card reader, relay driver circuit, energy meter and optocoupler, OLED , a buzzer and a regulated power supply. The figure -1 shows the block diagram of a prepaid electricity system.
The objective to set up a prepaid electricity meter was successfully achieved. The connections are done as shown in the figure 3 and the program is loaded on to the Arduino Nano. Power supply was provided to the Nano. The RFID card was swiped in the card reader with a particular recharge amount. The consumer consumes the units for the recharged amount. The LCD displays the pulses and the balance amount. The figure 3 gives the hardware set up installed at the consumer end.
It is a great pleasure to acknowledge all those who have assisted and supported us for successfully completing our project.
First of all, we thank God Almighty for his blessings as it is only through his grace that we was able to complete our project successfully.
We take this opportunity to extend our sincere thanks to our project guide Smt. Jeena Joy, and all the members of the Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering for sharing their valuable comments during the preparation of the project.
We also extend our deep sense of gratitude our Faculty Advisor, Prof. Neena Mani, Electrical & Electronics Engineering Department for their creative suggestions during the preparation of the project.
We express our deep sense of gratitude to Prof. Acy M Kottalil, Head of Electrical & Electronics Engineering Department.
This paper identifies the key benefits of Prepaid Electricity system. This system can control the usage of electricity on consumer side to avoid wastage of power it proves to be a boon in the power sector. The major drawback of a postpaid system is that there is no control of usage from the consumer’s side. There is a lot of wastage of power due to the consumers lack of planning of electrical consumption in an efficient way. Since the supply of power is limited, as a responsible citizen, there is a need to utilize electricity in a better and efficient way. The importance of the electricity power leads the researchers to find new technologies to get a better utilization of electrical power and reduce the waste. One of these technologies is the prepaid metering system. There are many methods for recharging the credit and for communication with the server. The proposed prototype electricity prepaid metering system used RFID technology as recharging method.
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