Authors: Md Farhan, B Charan, Md Masoom Baba, Dr. Y. Srinivasulu
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: In this paper, a system is introduced to manage waste in big cities effectively without having to monitor the parts 24x7 manually. Here the problem of unorganized and non- systematic waste collection is solved by designing an embedded IoT system which will monitor each dumpster individually for the amount of waste deposited. Here an automated system is provided for segregating wet and dry waste. A mechanical setup can be used for separating wet and dry waste into separate containers here sensors can be used for separating wet and dry. For detecting the presence of any waste wet or dry can be detected using an IR sensor in the next step for detecting wet waste a moister sensor can be used. In this process, if only IR is detected motor will rotate in the direction of the dry waste container if both the sensor detects the waste then it will go to the wet container. Both these containers are embedded with ultrasonic sensors at the top, the ultrasonic sensor is used for measuring distance. This makes it possible to measure the amount of waste in the containers if one of the containers is full then alert message will be sent to the corresponding personal.
Today big cities around the world are facing a common problem, managing the city waste effectively without making city unclean. Today’s waste management systems involve a large number of employees being appointed to attend a certain number of dumpsters this is done every day periodically.
This leads to a very inefficient and unclean system in which some dumpsters will be overflowing some dumpsters might not be even half full. This is caused by variation in population density in the city or some other random factor this makes it impossible to determine which part needs immediate attention. Here a waste management system is introduced in which each dumpster is embedded in a monitoring system which will notify the corresponding personal if the dumpster is full. In this system, it is also possible to separate wet and dry waste into two separate containers. This system provides an effective solution to waste management problem.
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
A Smart Waste Bin for Smart Waste Management proposed by, In this paper, the system consists of sensors to measure the weight of waste and the level of waste inside the bin. Bluetooth is attached for short range communication. The researchers suggests the method for garbage management which is as follows.
In this paper, Arduino UNO to check the level of garbage filled in the dustbin and sends the alert to the municipal web server once if garbage is filled. After cleaning the dustbin, the driver confirms the task of emptying the garbage with the aid of RFID Tag. RFID is a computing technology that is used for verification process and in addition, it also enhances the smart garbage alert system by providing automatic identification of garbage filled in the dustbin and sends the status of clean-up to the server affirming that the work is done.
The researchers suggests the method for garbage management which is as follows. In this paper the system makes use of Arduino Uno board, LCD screen, GSM modem for sending data. The system is powered by a 12V transformer. The LCD screen is used to display the status of the level of garbage collected in the bins. Whereas GSM is built to show the status to the user, monitoring it with SMS. The SMS consists of text related to all garbage bins. The LCD screen shows the status of the garbage level. The system puts on LCD screen continuously monitoring of garbage with Arduino board.
The researcher suggests the method for garbage management which is as follows. In this paper the bin was connected with a microcontroller-based system which had IR wireless system with a main central system that shows the current status of the garbage bin. The status was seen on a mobile based web browser with html page by using Wi-Fi. in this system to reduce the cost they used weight sensor and on the sender’s side they used a Wi-Fi module to send and receive the data. In the end the weight sensor only detects the weight of the garbage in the bin but not the level of water.
III. EXISTING SYSTEM
IV. ABOUT SMART WASTE MANAGEMENT
Module description List of modules:
A. Ardunio UNO
The Arduino Uno is a microcontroller board is dependent on the ATmega328 (datasheet). The microcontroller in Arduino is Microchip ATmega328P and the Operating Voltage is 5 volts. The Input Voltage range from 7 to 20 Volts and the Digital I/O Pins are 14 of which 6 provide PWM output. The analog Input Pins are 6,and DC Current per I/O Pin is 20 mA. Direct Current for 3.3V Pin is 50 mA. .The main part is the flash Memory contains 32 KB of which 0.5 KB used by bootloader SRAM for this Arduino has 2 KB and EEPROM of 1 KB with a Clock Speed of 16 MHz.The Length of the Arduino is 68.6 mm With the Width of 53.4 mm having the weight of 25 g . It contains everything expected to assist the microcontroller; essentially associate it to a laptop with a USB link or power it with associate degree AC-to-DC instrumentality or battery to start. The Uno varies from each single going before board in that it doesn't utilize the FTDI USB-to-sequential driver chip. Rather, it includes the Atmega16U2 (Atmega8U2 up to make R2) modified as a USB- to-sequential device.
Distance = Speed × Time
The Ultrasonic transmitter broadcast a supersonic wave, this wave goes in air and when it gets questioned by any material it gets reflected back toward the sensor this reflected wave is seen by the Ultrasonic beneficiary module as appeared in the image beneath Now, to figure the separation utilizing the above recipe, we should know Speed and time. Since we tend to utilize the supersonic wave we as a whole know all inclusive speed of wave at region conditions that is 330m/s. The hardware inbuilt on the module will compute the time taken for the US wave to return and turns on the reverberation stick high for that equivalent specific measure of your time, along these lines we can likewise realize the time taken. Presently just figure the separation utilizing a microcontroller or small scale chip. Likewise, this nondeterministic mapping case (i.e., one-to-many mapping) happens even after we normalize all parameter values to extract the structures of the web requests and queries.
Since the mapping can appear differently in different cases, it becomes difficult to identify all of the one-to-many mapping patterns for each web request. Moreover, when different operations occasionally overlap at their possible query set, it becomes even harder for us to extract the one-to- many mapping for each operation by comparing matched requests and queries across the sessions.
2. IR Sensor: An infrared sensor is an electronic device that emits in order to sense some aspects of the surroundings. An IR sensor can measure the heat of an object as well as detects the motion. These types of sensors measures only infrared radiation rather than emitting it that is called as a passive IR sensor.Usually in the infrared spectrum, all the objects radiate some form of thermal radiations. These types of radiations are invisible to our eyes that can be detected by an infrared sensor. The emitter is simply an IR LED (Light Emitting Diode) and the detector is simply an IR photodiode which is sensitive to IR light of the same wavelength as that emitted by the IR LED. When IR light falls on the photodiode, the resistances and these output voltages, change in proportion to the magnitude of the IR light received.
3. GSM Module: A GSM module or a GPRS module is a chip or circuit that will be used to establish communication between a mobile device or a computing machine and a GSM or GPRS system. The modem (modulator-demodulator) is a critical part here. These modules consist of a GSM module or GPRS modem powered by a power supply circuit and communication interfaces (like RS-232, USB 2.0, and others) for computer. A GSM modem can be a dedicated modem device with a serial, USB or Bluetooth connection, or it can be a mobile phone that provides GSM modem capabilities. A GSM/GPRS modem is a class of wireless modem, designed for communication over the GSM and GPRS network.
It requires a SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) card just like mobile phones to activate communication with the network. Also, they have IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity) number similar to mobile phones for their identification.
A GSM module exposes an interface that allows applications such as NowSMS to send and receive messages over the modem interface the mobile operator changes for message sending receiving as if it is performed directly on the mobile phone To perform these modules a GSM module should support an “extended AT command set”.for sending or receiving messages
One of the major application is the flood intimation project is designed to detect a rise in the water level and convey the message to the concerned authorities by using GSM protocols. As the water level rises from a fixed level, (which can be sensed by using any sensor) the microcontroller gets interrupted.
4. Moisture Sensor: Moisture sensors measure the volumetric water content in soil. Since the direct gravimetric measurement of free soil moisture requires removing, drying, and weighing of a sample, soil moisture sensors measure the volumetric water content indirectly by using some other property of the soil, such as electrical resistance, dielectric constant, or interaction with neutrons, as a proxy for the moisture content. The relation between the measured property and soil moisture must be calibrated and may vary depending on environmental factors such as soil type, temperature, or electric conductivity. Reflected microwave radiation is affected by the soil moisture and is used for remote sensing in hydrology and agriculture. Portable probe instruments can be used by farmers or gardeners.
Module Diagram for Moisture Sensor
C. Arduino IDE
The Arduino integrated development environment (IDE) is a cross-stage application (for Windows, macOS, Linux) that is written in the programming language Java. It is utilized to compose and transfer programs to Arduino compatible boards, yet in addition, with the assistance of outsider centres, other seller advancement sheets. The source code for the IDE is discharged under the GNU General Public License. The Arduino IDE underpins the dialects C and C++ utilizing uncommon guidelines of code organizing. The Arduino IDE supplies a product library from the Wiring venture, which gives numerous normal information and yield methodology. Client composed code just requires two essential capacities, for beginning the sketch and the principle program circle, that are aggregated and connected with a program stub fundamental () into an executable cyclic official program with the GNU toolchain, additionally included with the IDE distribution. The Arduino IDE utilizes the program avrdude to change over the executable code into a book record in hexadecimal encoding that is stacked into the Arduino board by a loader program in the board's firmware The primary code, otherwise called a sketch, made on the IDE platform will eventually produce a Hex File which is then moved and transferred in the controller on the board. for composing the required code and later is utilized for assembling and transferring the code into the given Arduino Module.
This environment supports both C and C++
D. Thing Speak
ThingSpeak is an IoT analytics platform service that allows you to aggregate, visualize and analyze live data streams in the cloud. ThingSpeak provides instant visualizations of data posted by your devices to ThingSpeak. With the ability to execute MATLAB code in ThingSpeak you can perform online analysis and processing of the data as it comes in. ThingSpeak is often used for prototyping and proof of concept IoT systems that require analytics.
E. Servo Motor
A servomotor is a linear actuator or rotary actuator that allows for precise control of linear or angular position, acceleration, and velocity. It consists of a motor coupled to a sensor for position feedback. It also requires a relatively sophisticated controller, often a dedicated module designed specifically for use with servomotors.There are some special types of applications of an electric motor where the rotation of the motor is required for just a certain angle. For these applications, we require some special types of motor with some special arrangement which makes the motor rotate a certain angle for a given electrical input (signal). For this purpose, servo motor comes into the picture.
V. BLOCK DIAGRAM
Here, the figure represents an integration of Smart Waste Management System with a 3-tier sensor processor device system.
Every project is always has scope for improvement, perhaps the most pressing issue of separation of waste is when their dispose simultaneously. The waste segregator can be improvised to include the separation of paper and plastic, safe segregation of biomedical waste generated at home, compact and aesthetic Mechanical design.
 2017 5th International Conference on Instrumentation, Control, and Automation (ICA) Yogyakarta, Indonesia,  August 9-11, 2017  IOT Based Smart Garbage alert system using Arduino UNO Date and journal: 2016 IEEE Region 10 Conference (TENCON) Author: Dr.N.SATHISH KUMAR, B.VIJAYALAKSHMI, R. JENIFER PRARTHANA, A .SHANKAR (S.R.M., Coimbatore, INDIA)  Solid waste management based upon IoT or Smart city Date and Journal: ICICCS 2017 Author: Krishna Nirde, Prashant S. Mulay, UttamM.Chaskar (C.O.E. Pune).
Copyright © 2023 Md Farhan, B Charan, Md Masoom Baba, Dr. Y. Srinivasulu. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.