Authors: Anita Dombale, Ambarish Singh, Alankar Jagtap, Aniket Ambilwade, Amay Patel, Manthan Alandkar, Vrushab Ambadkar
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Smart Shoes for blind people are a technological solution that aims to improve the mobility and independence of visually impaired individuals. The smart shoes are equipped with a variety of sensors and technologies that work together to provide real-time feedback about the user\'s surroundings, obstacles, and navigation directions. The main components of the smart shoes include an inertial measurement unit (IMU), GPS receiver, microcontroller, Bluetooth module, and a haptic feedback mechanism. The IMU consists of sensors such as accelerometers and gyroscopes that measure the movement and orientation of the shoe. The GPS receiver provides location data that is used to calculate the user\'s position and orientation. The microcontroller processes the sensor data and runs a navigation algorithm that calculates the safest and most efficient route for the user to take. The algorithm takes into account factors such as the user\'s destination, the terrain, obstacles, and other environmental factors. The Bluetooth module enables the user to connect to a smartphone or other device to receive audio or visual instructions and feedback. The haptic feedback mechanism, such as vibrating motors, provides tactile feedback to the user about the direction and proximity of obstacles. Smart shoes for blind people offer a unique and innovative solution to improve the mobility and independence of visually impaired individuals. They provide real-time feedback and navigation directions to help users navigate their environment safely and efficiently.
Smart shoes designed for blind people have emerged as a remarkable technological solution aimed at improving the mobility and safety of individuals with visual impairments. These innovative shoes integrate a range of features, including ultrasonic sensors, piezoelectric chargeable batteries, and a GPS location tracking system. However, the distinctive aspect of these shoes lies in their ability to provide real-time location information to family members or caregivers, ensuring their peace of mind and allowing them to monitor the whereabouts of their visually impaired loved ones.
One of the significant features of these smart shoes is the incorporation of a GPS location tracking system. The GPS module embedded within the shoes accurately determines the wearer's location. However, instead of relaying this information directly to the visually impaired individual, it is transmitted to a designated family member or caregiver. This enables them to access real-time updates on the wearer's location, providing an added layer of security and reassurance.
By utilizing a GPS module along with a Wi-Fi module, these smart shoes establish a communication link between the shoes and a connected device, such as a smartphone or tablet. This allows the family member or caregiver to access the location data remotely through a dedicated application. They can track the movements of the visually impaired individual, receive notifications when they enter or leave predefined areas, and even establish geofences to ensure their safety.
The development of smart shoes for the visually impaired using Arduino can be divided into several steps:
The methodology of a GPS (Global Positioning System) module involves receiving signals from multiple satellites to determine the device's precise location on Earth. Here is a general overview of the methodology:
a. Satellite Signal Reception: The GPS module receives signals from multiple satellites orbiting the Earth. These satellites continuously transmit signals containing information about their location and precise timing.
b. Signal Triangulation: The GPS module uses the received signals from at least four satellites to perform a process called trilateration. Trilateration involves measuring the time it takes for signals to travel from the satellites to the module. By knowing the speed of light, the module can determine the distance between the module and each satellite.
c. Position Calculation: Once the GPS module has determined the distances to at least four satellites, it can calculate its precise position. It uses mathematical algorithms to process the satellite data, taking into account the satellites' positions and the time it took for the signals to reach the module.
d. Time Synchronization: GPS modules also synchronize the device's internal clock with the highly accurate atomic clocks onboard the satellites. This synchronization allows the module to accurately measure the signal travel times and perform precise calculations.
e. Data Output: After determining the device's position, the GPS module provides the latitude, longitude, and sometimes altitude information. This data can be used by applications and navigation systems to provide location-based services or for tracking purposes.
f. Continuous Tracking: GPS modules continuously receive signals from multiple satellites and update the position calculations in real-time. By constantly receiving new signals, the module can track the device's movement and provide up-to-date location information.
It's important to note that GPS modules require an unobstructed view of the sky to receive signals from satellites effectively. Buildings, dense foliage, or other obstacles may interfere with signal reception and degrade the accuracy of the GPS positioning.
The term "piezoelectric material" refers to a class of materials that can generate an electrical charge in response to mechanical stress or deformation, and vice versa. The methodology for working with piezoelectric materials typically involves the following steps:
a. Material Selection: Choose a suitable piezoelectric material for your application. Common examples include quartz, lead zirconate titanate (PZT), and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF).
b. Material Preparation: Prepare the piezoelectric material in the desired form. This can involve cutting, shaping, or polishing the material to the required dimensions. In some cases, the material may need to be doped or processed to enhance its piezoelectric properties.
c. Electrode Application: Apply electrodes to the surfaces of the piezoelectric material. Electrodes are necessary to facilitate the electrical connection and capture the generated electrical charge. Typically, conductive materials like silver or nickel are used for the electrodes. They can be applied through processes such as sputtering, screen printing, or evaporation.
d. Measurement and Characterization: Perform measurements and characterization of the piezoelectric material to understand its properties and behavior. This can involve testing the material's piezoelectric constants, resonance frequency, impedance, and other relevant parameters using specialized equipment such as an impedance analyzer or a laser vibrometer.
e. Integration and Assembly: Integrate the piezoelectric material into your device or system. This may involve mounting the material onto a substrate or incorporating it into a mechanical structure. Ensure proper electrical connections between the electrodes and any associated electronics or control circuits.
f. Stimulus Application: Apply mechanical stress or deformation to the piezoelectric material to generate an electrical response. This can be done by subjecting the material to pressure, vibration, bending, or other mechanical stimuli depending on the specific application requirements.
g. Signal Processing and Utilization: Capture and process the electrical signal generated by the piezoelectric material using appropriate electronics. This may involve amplification, filtering, or conditioning of the signal to meet the requirements of your application. The processed signal can then be utilized for various purposes, such as sensing, actuation, energy harvesting, or vibration control.
It's important to note that the methodology for working with piezoelectric materials can vary depending on the specific material, application, and requirements. Additionally, some specialized techniques, such as poling for aligning the dipoles in certain piezoelectric materials, may be necessary in specific cases.
The ESP8266 is a versatile Wi-Fi module that can be programmed to perform various functions. Here is an overview of the methodology typically followed when using the ESP8266 module:
a. Hardware Setup: Connect the ESP8266 module to a microcontroller or development board. The module usually communicates with the microcontroller via serial communication (UART) using the TX and RX pins. Additionally, power supply connections (VCC and GND) are required.
b. Firmware/Software Development: Write or upload firmware/software to the ESP8266 module. There are several development platforms and programming languages that can be used, such as Arduino IDE, Lua programming language, or MicroPython. You can choose the platform and language that best suits your requirements.
c. Initialization and Configuration: Configure the ESP8266 module by sending appropriate AT commands or using programming APIs specific to the development platform you are using. This step involves setting up the Wi-Fi network parameters, such as SSID and password, and configuring other module-specific settings, including baud rate and communication mode.
d. Wi-Fi Connectivity: Establish a connection between the ESP8266 module and the desired Wi-Fi network. This typically involves providing the SSID and password of the network. Once connected, the module can communicate with other devices or connect to the internet.
e. Application Development: Develop the desired application or functionality using the ESP8266 module. This can include tasks like data acquisition, sensor integration, web server implementation, client communication, MQTT messaging, or IoT (Internet of Things) integration. You can leverage the module's built-in TCP/IP stack and various libraries to implement the desired features.
f. Testing and Deployment: Test the functionality of your ESP8266-based application thoroughly to ensure it operates as intended. Once tested, deploy the module in your desired application or project.
It's worth noting that the ESP8266 module offers many advanced features, such as GPIO pins for digital and analog input/output, SPI, I2C, and UART interfaces, and support for OTA (Over-The-Air) updates. These features allow for extensive customization and integration possibilities in a wide range of projects.
The shoe project should be developed with input from the visually impaired community to ensure that it meets their needs and preferences. It should also be affordable and accessible to people in different parts of the world. Ovrall this shoes has the automatic charging indiacator so the family members of the visually impared will identify the charge in battery and replace it when needed. Beside that it has a piezeoelectric sensor to charge the battery by itself as they walk and provides from the frequent change of the battery in it. This shoe also contains GPS module so the current location of the visually impared can be detected easily by their family members.
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Copyright © 2023 Anita Dombale, Ambarish Singh, Alankar Jagtap, Aniket Ambilwade, Amay Patel, Manthan Alandkar, Vrushab Ambadkar. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.