Traffic problems are not only including the traffic congestion because of large vehicle tightness and causes the difficulty for emergency vehicles to reach their destination, usually red light traffic violation causes accidents in the roads. Existing proposed systems for smart traffic monitoring of vehicles are usually depending on vehicle density traffic system by using Arduino. This causes difficulty for emergency vehicles. To solve the congestion of traffic problems at intersection roads, it is necessary to implement a smart and real time traffic system. These systems are implemented and limited to at least one or two focus areas. To overcome these problems, Smart Traffic Control System using FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) IR sensors and RFID (Radio frequency Identifier) is introduced to sophisticated traffic moves and provide the lane for the ambulances. The RFID uses in this system is determines the emergency vehicles from the long distance and this information passes and controlled by the FPGA and it control the main traffic control lights. Here these functionalities and simulations are achieved by using Verilog programming language and this is implemented on Xilinx 14.7 Software. The controlling and switching of the traffic lights states (Red, Yellow and Green) is found on the FSM (Finite State Machine). This system can be implemented by using Spartan 6 family. This implementation shows the results of identifying the emergency vehicles and Green signal is on till that emergency vehicles are passed.
Basically, the traffic light control and monitoring system works on the specific switching lights of Red, Green and Yellow within the specific time. Usually, this static time based traffic monitoring system is worked based on Microcontroller or Microprocessor. To be capable to provide the Sophisticated Lane for the vehicles, Automatic control and proper coordination are needed to ensure the safety traffic moves, providing the easy way to the emergency vehicles and protecting the pedestrians while crossing the roads as safe as possible. The Fundamental concept behind the Smart Traffic Controller System Using FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) and RFID (Radio Frequency Identifier) is to provide the specific traffic
Light switching mechanism control system by recognizing the emergency vehicles through the radio frequency identifier tag and reader. Along with through the IR (Infrared) Sensors the vehicle density of the traffic also detected. If multiple ambulances are detected simultaneously, based on the RFID tag identification detection priority the particular lane will be clear for the emergency vehicles. Traffic light System is the major challenging issue in the world. This is due to the increased mobility of the on road vehicles as increasing the population growth. Poor maintenance of the traffic system is the major cause for the accidents, time delay. The traffic control based on This problem can be overcome by using proposed method, this proposed system is uses the Combination of FPGA, Sensors and RFID tag and readers in the junction of four way for the sake of controlling the traffic Without wasting the time and providing the Sophisticated way for emergency automobiles with the help of RFID to save lifetime.
Field Programmable gate array is Matrix of user-configurable logic, named as ALMs (adaptive logic module) plays an essential role in the field of Embedded System. It consists of an array of DSP (digital signal processing) logic blocks or storage elements (Random Access Memory) and they are arranged in programmable manner. The logic blocks are commonly used to perform the complex tasks. These logic blocks are consists of logic cells like four input LUT, D-Flip flop and Full adder. FPGA has the ability to cope up with both hardware and software simultaneously. Specific Configuration of FPGA is described HDL. It has the flexibility of reprogramming or re-configurable computing even though after complete the manufacturing. These Programmable gate arrays are uses the analog features to perform the digital functionalities. Apart from these blocks, the FPGA is also consists of configuration logic block, transceiver block and input output block. Due to the parallel nature of this, it is used in configuration of soft microprocessor or Xilinx Altera.
III. XILINX ISE
Xilinx ISE refers Integrated Synthesis Environment. It is Software tool used to analysis and synthesis of the Hardware language designs like HDL, VHDL and Verilog. Hierarchy of ISE describes the functionalities that performs only on the present active module. It consists of various patent algorithms, due to that Xilinx allows the developer to run the designs up to thirty percent faster when compare to the other software tool. It permits the developer to compilation of their designs, like verifying the RTL schematic, reaction of the design for variety of inputs and mainly analysis of timing and delay. To achieve the different functionalities in our project, the Xilinx ISE is hardly coupled with the FPGA Spartan 6.
The smart traffic control proposed system consists of three main important components. They are
FPGA Spartan 6 kit.
Light Emitting Diodes (LED’s)
The FPGA Spartan 6 device is a heart of the control system. Which receives the multiple input signals from the input sensors (IR and RFID) and processes the input signal according to the programming and sends the multiple output signals to the output device i.e. light emitting diode (LED). Mainly these control system is worked based on the Finite State Machine (FSM). The RFID (Radio Frequency Identifier) is mainly employed to detect the emergency vehicles (EV) through the RFID tag and RFID reader. If any emergency vehicle is detected, this data is send to the FPGA it immediately on the “Green Corridor” to clear the traffic lane and provides the easy way for the emergency Automobiles. Always first preference is given for the identification of EV. The IR (infra-red) input sensors mainly used to the four ways of the junction to detect the density of traffic. The IR sensors are detects the length of the vehicles or vehicle density and this data is sends to the FPGA device. Depending upon the length of the traffic density, it blink the green LED lights to clear the traffic. If there is no Ambulance are detected and if the traffic jam in all four lanes are equal, the advanced traffic control system works in the regular sequence i.e. finite state machine(FSM).
V. FLOW CHART
Flow chart of the smart control system as shown in the diagram. First initialize the system by connecting the components to the power or battery source i.e. the 12VDC is connected to the FPGA Spartan 6 device and 3.3VDC is connected to the RFID sensors. Once the system is initialize, it start to detect the any emergency vehicles. If any emergency vehicles are detected in out of four road lanes, the “green corridor” will be automatically on for certain amount of period. Once the emergency vehicle is passed, the control system immediately starts to regulate the traffic in normal way. If there is no emergency vehicles are detected, the system is skips to the next condition that is calculation of vehicle density. If vehicle density is greater than certain limit, the controller is automatically on the green LED light to clear the traffic at that particular lane. If there is no traffic density at the lane, the controller is skips that lane and moved to control the other lane traffic in FSM sequence. If there is no emergency vehicle and equal traffic density at all four lane, the smart traffic control system starts to monitor the system in regular sequence.
Smart traffic control system can be designed and implemented by using FPGA Spartan 6. Efficiently this system can calculate the traffic density in the real time through the IR Sensors and also recognizes the emergency vehicles with the RFID tag and reader. FPGA collects traffic data from these input sensors and effectively control the real time traffic congestion and traffic jam during the peak hours. In future we can use the surveillance camera to record the traffic data in the intersection.
 Tejas naik,Roopa Lakshmi,Divya ravi N,Pawdhan Jain and Manichandra” RFID Based Smart Traffic Control Frame work for emergency Vehicles” Published in 2018 in 2nd international conference on inventive communication an computation Technologies
 Noor gadawe and Sahar Qaddoori “Design and implementation of smart traffic controller using VHDL language”Published in 2019 in international journal of engineering and Technology.
 Dr. Vikram Bali, Dr. Vishnu Sharma, Ms. Sonali Mathur and Dev Gaur “Smart traffic management system using IOT enabled technology”Published in 2020 in 2nd international conference on advances in Computing, Communication Control and Networking.
 S. Neelakandan, M. A. Berlin, Sandesh Tripathi, V. Brindha Devi and Indu Bharadwaj “ IOT-based traffic prediction and traffic signal control system for smart city” Published in 2021 in Springer.
 Daniel Opoku and Benjamin Kommey”FPGA- Based Intelligent TraffiController with Remote Operation Mode”Published in 2020 InternationalJournal of innovative Technology and Interdisciplinary Sciences.
 Manoj Kumar. D, Arthi. R, Aravindhan. C, Ajin Roch. A, Priyadarsini K and Deny J”Traffic congestion control synchronizing and rerouting using LoRa” DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micro.2021.104048
 Denny Hardiyanto, Iswanto, Dyah Anggun Sartika and Muamar Rojali”Pedestrian crossing safety system at traffic lights based on decision tree algorithm” Published in 2021 International journal of advanced computer science and application.
 Ke Lu, Pingping Du, Jinde Cao, Qiming Zou, Tianjia He and Huang” A Novel traffic signal split approach based on explicit model predictive control” DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matcom.2017.12.004