Authors: Aditya Gulalkari, Prajwal Kalmegh, Chinmay Bokey, Anurodh Patil, Tushar Mohod
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Nowadays the demand for clean, renewable energy sources is increasing. The use of renewable energy resource increasing rapidly. The structure plays an important role in stability of an entire solar mounting structure. The solar structure decide the life period of hole solar panel mounting system solar structure has to withstand different types of loading conditions and bear the weight of photo-voltaic panels. In this review paper, there is consideration about design and analysis and cost optimization of solar panel support structure by considering environmental effect like wind load, structural load and height of structure , material selection and also their properties . The analysis can be done by creating model in software and followed by analysis using different software to determine pressure distribution on the solar panel area and structure, then it can break and will be affect the power generation and also affect the life cycle of the hole solar panel mounting system.
Sun is the ultimate source of energy, almost all forms of energy is either directly or indirectly related it. It has been saying that the energy released from sun in one second is more than that what mankind had used since the dawn of civilization. Nowadays the demand for clean, renewable energy sources is increasing. In order to collect solar power effectively, it is necessary to use large areas of solar panels properly aligned to the sun. A wide variety of design solutions is suggested so as to achieve maximum efficiency .In so Many countries are now moving towards renewable source of energy for power generation. Solar energy is emerging as one of the prominent source of energy. One of the main components of solar system plants is the structure. If the structure fails, then the entire plant will shut down. Thus structures designed to withstand different loading parameters. Such as height of structure wind load, structure load .Mounting structures are the backbone of a solar power plant as they provide support to modules. These support structures raise solar panels at appropriate angles to ensure that they receive maximum solar irradiation .Solar PV rooftop system is basically a small power plant at your rooftop. Solar PV modules form an array and it requires a mounting structure to hold PV modules at the required angle for maximized generation. The solar panels convert solar energy in the form of light into electricity in DC form Direct Current .The technology of solar arrays includes the optimization of structural platforms, lightweight array frames, innovative deployment systems and higher efficiency photovoltaic components. The existing types of technology, methods of installation, and mounting locations ground, roof, or integrated with the building envelope vary significantly, and are consequently affected by all loading condition differently Also the structure should withstand the loads until the service life span of plant . There are different types of solar mounting structure. They are either mounted on ground, on roofs or on poles. There are five basic types of mounting structures of which four are fixed- angle types and one variable-angle type: Roof Mounted Racks. Ground Mounted Racks are used in solar structure mounting system.
II. SOLAR MOUNTING SYSTEM
Mounting structures need to be durable to be able to bear the weight of solar panels, high wind speeds and a range of temperatures. In order to adapt to topographical features and weather conditions at site, module mounting structures require customisation. These structures can be set up for rooftop plants, ground-mounted solar, carport and sun tracker solutions. Mounting structures have evolved over the years in terms of weight, material, adaptability and cost. Solar panels are not directly attached to the ground or rooftops; rather, they need to be mounted on supporting structures that can align them perfectly for optimised energy production. The primary purpose of mounting structures is to position the solar panel at an angle that can maximise the amount of sunlight it receives. These structures also protect the modules from natural calamities and prevent dust, water and other elements from accumulating on their surface. In addition, mounting structures allow for easy maintenance and repairs of solar panels. Mounting
structures are the backbone of a solar power plant as they provide support to modules. These support structures raise solar panels at appropriate angles to ensure that they receive maximum solar irradiation.
III. TYPES OF ROOFTOP STRUCTURES
A. Standard Rooftop Mounting Structure
Standard Rooftop Mounting Structure is the most common choice of many households. These are the most basic mounting structures that come in three different types.
1.Railed Mounting Structure: In a railed mounting structure, solar panels are fixed on several rails through a set of clamps. The rails are made of aluminium and attach to your roof by using a drill and nut-bolts.
2.Rail less/Ballasted Mounting System: Rail less mounting structure is also known as ballasted mounting structure. In this structure, solar panels are directly fixed with the roof by using hardware. This is a cost effective and easy way to install solar panels on roofs.
3.Shared Rail Mounting System: Shared rail mounting system is very similar to railed system. In the railed mounting system, 4 rails are used to fix 2 rows of solar panel. While in the shared rail system only 3 rails will be used to mount 2 rows. The middle rail will be shared by both the rows.
B. Elevated Solar Panel Structure
In elevated solar panel structure, solar panels are installed at a height of 10 to 15 ft. There will be a little room type space beneath the mounting structure. It is also the most common types of mounting structure.
IV. MATERIAL USED IN SOLAR MOUNTING STRUCTURE
Stainless steel, aluminium and galvalume are the primary materials used in solar mounting structures in India. While steel and aluminium have been in use for a long time, galvalume is a more recent addition. The type of material used for mounting structures is dependent on the location and the life cycle of the plant. Earlier, wood and polymer were used as mounting structure materials. However, they have been replaced with more durable materials and are no longer actively used.
V. LITRATURE REVIEW
Nina Pande et.al. Different types of load acting on solar structure in this review paper studies different types of load acting on solar structure and their analysis. Also studied if the structure is not designed considering all loading factor then it can lead to breakage of structure which intern will affect the power generation.
Gadhavi Akash G et.al. Design and analysis of solar panel support structure in the paper studies Support structure by considering environmental effects like wind load , height of structure , structural load the analysis can be done by creating the model in software and then analysis in different software . Is also considered that verify that the location is important for solar panel mounting structure it also affect the performance and life span of that structure.
Alex Mathew et.al. Design and stability analysis of solar panel support structure subjected to the wind force and made in mind steel in this paper the design of solar panel support structure and the effect of wind force on its structural stability is discussed in this paper the measures for preventing the overturning of structure are also discussed they used CAD modelling software CREO 2.O test model of solar panel support structure was created steel. They concluded that the design of solar panel supporting structure is done and the effects of wind force on its structure stability are analysed. Due to the wind force, a reaction force is experienced on the structure and the structure will retain its stable state, only if this reaction force is compensated by the force due the self-weight of the structure. .
Rohit Pnjwani et.al. Studies design and analysis of solar structural and mounting for solar panel in this studies discussed the solar mounting system and their various types and also studied material selection which material can be suitable for solar mounting structure for including all environmental effects also studied material properties and cost of materials They concluded that The modified solar mounting structure is based on the analysis of wind velocity considering constants regions velocity and different boundary conditions. The material used for the modified design is appropriate for all the surrounding conditions and cost friendly.
Muhammad Waqas et. al. Numerical investigation of impact of various wind loads on the structural stability and strength of solar panel supporting structure. In this study, Finite Element Method (FEM) was established to investigate the impact of various wind loads on the structural reliability and strength of solar panel supporting structures. also studied Wind loads were also calculated by mathematical approach. They concluded that solar panel structure was significantly affected by wind loads applied on the surface of solar PV module. The wind speeds of 20 m/s, 25 m/s, 30 m/s, 35 m/s and 40 m/s were used for the analysis of solar panel supporting structure. The results obtained from the FEM analysis that total deformation and maximum equivalent stresses were increased by increasing the wind loads.
A. Mihailidis et. al. Analysis of solar panel support structure in this studies, the analysis of two different design approaches of solar panel support structures is presented. Also studied the analysis in three different ways such as Loading calculation, Analysis of the structure, identification of structure critical point also studied Finnie Element Method (FEM)is used to calculate the stresses acting on the supporting structure there are two types of solar panel mounting structure fix and adjustable are studied in this paper. They concluded that fixed solar array support structures have sophisticated design that needs to be analyzed and often improved in order to withstand the wind load. The same applies of course to adjustable designs to an even greater extend .The stresses on different members of the structure are studied and also studied comparison of fixed and adjustable support structure.
VI. ADVANTAGES OF MOUNTING STRUCTURE
We conclude that to study the various structures and design material we also observe the various types of solar mounting structure. Analysis the material and their properties and we also study advantages of solar mounting structure and their cost in our prospective to recommend the material that is galvanize iron.
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