The first step in the efficient and effective management of solid waste in gramme panchayats in Uttar Pradesh is to identify the type and quantity of garbage. To do this, we choose two cities from the central area and the west region (1. Jhansi, 2. Saharanpur). Two Gram Panchayats from each of the aforementioned districts were surveyed. The sample came from the chosen Gram Panchayat and was as follows: Gram Panchayats with populations greater than 10,000 were surveyed in 300 households, those with populations between 5,000 and 10,000 were surveyed in 150 households, those with populations between 2000 and 5000 were surveyed in 100 households, and those with populations under 10,000 were surveyed in 50 households. The District authorities were consulted for the selection of Gram Panchayats. Additionally, a survey of one weekly market was conducted in each District in order to collect information on the amount and type of waste produced during the weekly markets. Four major heads were used to categorise the garbage produced in gramme panchayats (Bio-degradable waste, Recyclable waste, Hazardous waste, Inert waste). In the study, we discovered that biodegradable trash makes up the majority of waste in gramme panchayats (57%), followed by inert waste (22%) and recyclable waste (17%). While all waste types can be managed, there is insufficient solid waste management at the gramme panchayat level. Additionally, we make some recommendations for efficient gramme panchayat-level waste management in Uttar Pradesh.
Solid Waste Management (SWM) is an organized process of storage, collection, transportation, processing and disposal of solid refuse residuals in an engineered sanitary landfill. Solid Waste Management (SWM) includes all activities that seek to minimize the health, environment and aesthetic impacts of solid wastes.
It is an integrated process comprising several collection methods, varied transportation equipment, storage, recovery mechanisms for recyclable material, reduction of waste volume and quantity by methods such as composting, waste-to-power and disposal in a designated engineered sanitary landfill.
The selection of a suitable SWM process is driven by the source and quality of waste produced. Solid waste is generated from a number of sources which include households (kitchen and yards), commercial areas (shops, hotels, and restaurants), industries (raw material and packaging), institutions (schools, hospitals, and offices), construction and demolition sites, wild and domesticated animals (carcasses of dead animals, manure), parks (fallen branches, leaves from trees) and streets (sand, silt, clay, concrete, bricks, asphalt, residues from air deposition and dust).
To tackle the adverse impact of uncontrolled waste generation, its handling and disposal, the Government of India has made the “Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016”.
And they apply to every urban local body, outgrowths in urban agglomerations, census towns as declared by the Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India, notified areas, notified industrial townships, areas under the control of Indian Railways, airports, airbases, Ports and harbours, defence establishments, special economic zones, State and Central government organisations, places of pilgrims, religious and historical importance as may be notified by respective State government from time to time and to every domestic, institutional, commercial and any other non-residential solid waste generator situated in the areas except industrial waste, hazardous waste, hazardous chemicals, bio medical wastes, e-waste, lead acid batteries and radio-active waste, that are covered under separate rules framed under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
Scientific disposal of solid waste through segregation, collection, treatment and disposal in an environmentally sound manner minimises the adverse impact of waste on the environment. The Gram Panchayats/ Blocks/ District shall be responsible for development of infrastructure for collection, storage, segregation, transportation, processing and disposal of Solid Waste.
A. Site Description
The study area covers 4 villages of Jhansi and 4 villages of Saharanpur according to their population.
To Characterize & Quantify the waste we conducted a survey of Solid Waste in Gram Panchayats of Uttar Pradesh. For the above purpose 2 districts had been selected from each i.e. east and central region
Table 1: Details of Gram panchayats
B. Sampling Procedure
In the above districts 4 Gram Panchayats of each district were surveyed. From the selected Gram Panchayat, the sample was as under:
Gram Panchayat with more than 10000 population 300 households were surveyed.
Gram Panchayat with 5000-10000 population 150 households were surveyed.
Gram Panchayat with 2000-5000 population 100 households were surveyed.
Gram Panchayat with less than 2000 population 50 households were surveyed.
The selection of Gram Panchayats was done in consultation with the District authorities. And in order to get the data of waste generated and its type at the weekly markets, survey of one weekly market was done at each District.
III. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
A. Nature of solid waste generated in gram panchayats
Preliminary investigation of the research in revealed that composition of solid waste range from food to electronic goods. The category of waste is depicted in the table given below:
Table 2: Nature of solid waste generated in gram panchayats
Sub-Category & Type
Mostly green waste from the kitchen and animal waste
Plastic, Wood, Thermocol, Glass, Tin, Metal etc.
Diapers, Sanitary Napkins, Small batteries, unused medicines, syringes etc.
Mostly Mud and Dust
B. Quantity of Solid Waste
C. Strategy of solid waste management in Gram panchayats
Segregation of waste at household level/ establishment level- two bin system (organic and recyclable).
Encourage the households, if land available with them, to construct a small pit/earthen post composting for biodegradable waste and compost can be used by them.
Door to door collection- by private party or the Gram Panchayat;
Collection vehicles/ carts to have two bin systems.
At secondary collection point two bins to be kept.
Transportation to be in vehicles with Partition and cover, to the material recovery centre to be established by the Gram Panchayat.
Bio-degradable waste to be sent to vermi-composting unit/community composting pit/windrow composting - to be established at Gram Panchayat level and managed by local NGO’s or RWAs or SHGs.
Local rag-pickers and kabariwalas to be roped-in for segregation and paid out of the sale of recyclables.
If no nearby Industry is available than RDF material to be sent to nearest big ULB/ Point designated by the District Authority to be further sent to Industry.
Balance inert waste to be sent to nearest Landfill site for which district authorities to make arrangements (Not more than 10%).
There are still several issues with solid waste management at the gramme panchayat level. In the gramme panchayats of Uttar Paradesh, there is no management system in place. The primary source of solid waste at the gramme panchayat level is biodegradable waste, which can be managed by composting at the gramme panchayat level. The management of plastic waste, which is the biggest issue in villages because it is so harmful to both animals and the environment, is handled by a door-to-door collection system by a private party or the gramme panchayat, as well as segregation at the household level/establishment level (organic and recyclable). Typhoid, cholera, amoebic dysentery, and other serious diseases are brought on by the improper management of solid waste in villages, hence adequate management of solid waste at the gramme panchayat level is required.
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