Authors: Krishna Chandra Yogeshwar, Er. Vinod Kumar Sonthwal
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Soil stabilization in a broader sense refers to various methods and techniques employed to improve the geotechnical properties of a problematic soil to enhance its load bearing capacity. Many materials like cement, lime, bitumen etc. are employed to improve the properties but they are not ecofriendly as such. In this study, an effort has been made to study the effect of natural occurring polymer, Guar Gum to improve the mechanical properties of soil rich in clayey minerals. This biopolymer is biodegradable in nature and have less carbon footprint than other conventional materials. Five different varying proportion (0.5%, 1.0%, 1.75%, 2.50% and 3.25%) of Guar Gum with soil has been used to find the optimum dosage required for stabilization. Three major properties like Optimum Moisture Content -Maximum Dry Density relation, California Bearing Ratio Test (both unsoaked and soaked) and Unconfined Compressive Strength Test were studied on the soil and mixes. From the results it was concluded that soil with 1% Guar Gum has shown maximum improvement in the geotechnical properties of soil.
Soil stabilization technique is employed to improve the geotechnical properties of the problematic soil so as to increase its load bearing capacity and to improve the durability of construction. For this, various conventional methods like use of cement, lime, bitumen etc. are employed to improve these properties. These materials are however not ecofriendly and have more carbon footprint in the environment. To promote sustainable development and to reduce the impact of construction projects on environment, new ecofriendly materials are now being studied to replace these materials. One such material is Guar Gum, which is a naturally occurring polymer also referred as Biopolymer It is extracted from the seeds of the Guar Plant. India is world’s leading producer of Guar Gum.
Guar Gum has binding property and is viscous in nature. This property of Guar Gum can be utilized for the binding effect on dispersive soils just like other binders. Guar Gum is a water soluble, non-ionic biopolymer and remains stable in solution of pH range of 5-7. These are mostly used as a thickener in food industry, as a binder agent in pharmaceutical industry etc.
A. Methods of Soil Improvement
These can be broadly classified into three categories:
B. Biopolymers used in soil Stabilization
C. Advantages of using Guar Gum are as follows
II. LITERATURE SURVEY
III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
A. Methods Adopted as per IS Code
IV. EXPERIMENTAL DESCRIPTION
Soil was collected from Mahoba district in Uttar Pradesh. Guar Gum was acquired from India Mart by Arboreal Bioinnovations Pvt. Ltd.
B. Heavy Compaction Test
The purpose of this test is to find out the water required to mix with the soil so as to achieve maximum dry density. Hence it gives Optimum Moisture Content required to achieve Maximum Dry Density. The mould used in this research work had weight 2146 gm and volume 991 cubic centimetres. Weight of rammer used in this test has weight of 4.90 kg and freefall height of 450 mm. The soil in the mould was placed in 5 layers of approximately equal mass with each layer subjected to 25 number of blows. After the test, some amount of soil from mould was extracted out to find out the moisture content of the soil. After the moisture content has been obtained, Bulk Density and Dry Density of the soil and mixes has been obtained.
C. California Bearing Ratio (CBR) Test
This test was developed in 1929 by California Division of Highways (US). It is the ratio expressed in percentage of force per unit area required to penetrate a soil mass with a standard circular plunger of 50 mm diameter at the rate of 1.25 mm/min to that required for corresponding penetration in a standard material. The Ratio is usually determined for penetration of 2.5 mm and 5 mm. When the ratio at 5 mm is consistently higher than that at 2.5 mm, the ratio at 5mm is used.
D. Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) Test
Unconfined Compressive Strength is the load per unit area at which an unconfined cylindrical specimen of soil will fail in the axial compression test. In this test specimen had diameter of 38 mm and height of 76 mm. Three specimens were prepared for each of the Parental Soil and Mixes and were loaded at a rate of 1.25 mm/min as long as the sample failed or until an axial strain of 20 percent is reached. Then the graph was plotted between compressive stress and strain to get the maximum unconfined strength of the soil.
V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
The experimental programme was conducted to determine the optimum dosage of the Guar Gum needed to stabilize the soil. All the engineering properties obtained from the results are compared below:
After performing all these tests following conclusions can be drawn out: 1) OMC values first shown a decreasing trend up to 1.0% Guar Gum content and then began to increase in all other categories of mixes. 2) MDD values shows a decreasing trend as the content of Guar Gum increases. 3) OMC and MDD value at 1.0% Guar Gum content is 13.22% and 1.82 gm/cc respectively. 4) Unsoaked value of CBR was achieved its maximum value at 1.0 % Guar Gum content with about 41.13% increase from the value of Parent Soil. 5) Unsoaked CBR value of soil with 1.0% Guar Gum content is 13.69%. 6) Soaked CBR value was also achieved maximum at 1.0% Guar Gum content with about 65.19% increase from the value of parent soil. 7) Soaked CBR value of soil with 1.0% Guar Gum content is 8.21% 8) All the UCS values of the mixes obtained were higher than the parent soil with maximum value at soil with 1.0% Guar Gum content. 9) UCS value of soil with 1.0% Guar Gum content is 2.87 kg/ sq. cm. 10) Optimum dosage of Guar Gum required for the maximum improvement in engineering properties of the soil from the test carried was 1% Guar Gum Content.
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Copyright © 2023 Krishna Chandra Yogeshwar, Er. Vinod Kumar Sonthwal. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.