Ijraset Journal For Research in Applied Science and Engineering Technology
Authors: Dr. Rudraswamy M P, Dr. B. R Patagundi
DOI Link: https://doi.org/10.22214/ijraset.2023.48984
Certificate: View Certificate
Nowadays, fibre reinforced concrete is more popular due to its improved ductility properties. It can be transformed into a useful construction material in areas where earthquake pressures are likely to cause harm. The ability of the materials to absorb energy in these situations is crucial. The addition of various fibres, such as carbon, steel, polypropylene, or any other type of fibre, will increase the concrete\'s ability to absorb energy. There isn\'t enough research on the effects of using hybrid fibres with various aspect ratios to concrete. This experimental study sheds some information on how hybrid fibre reinforced concrete behaves when fibres of different aspect ratio are used. Strength characteristics like compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength, shear strength, and impact strength are determined for concrete produced by using fibers of different aspect ratios.
I. INTRODUCTION
To enhance the tensile strength of concrete, fibres may be introduced into the concrete either in orderly form or in random. This type of concrete is called fiber reinforced concrete.
Different fibres such as steel, carbon, polypropylene, basalt, HDPE, etc., have been successfully used in the production of fibre reinforced concrete and even have seen many applications in civil engineering field.
To overcome, the limitations of fibre reinforced concrete, concept of hybrid fibre reinforced concrete is becoming more and more popular. In hybrid fibre reinforced concrete, two different fibres(example steel and polypropylene fibres) are combined. Among the two fibres, usually one fibre will have higher modulus of elasticity and the other have low modulus of elasticity. These high modulus and low modulus fibres when combined can act synergistically and arrests the cracks more efficiently as compared to mono fibre reinforced concrete. Similarly, hybrid fibre reinforced concrete can also be produced by using fibres of different aspect ratios. In this case also, the fibres with different aspect ratio can act synergistically and resist the cracks more tactfully.
Hybrid fibre reinforced concrete has also seen many applications in the field of civil engineering. Therefore, hybrid fibre reinforced concrete is attracting more and more researchers for further enhanced applications in the field of civil engineering.
II. OBJECTIVE
The primary goal of this research work is to study the behaviour of hybrid fibre reinforced concrete made with fibres of various aspect ratios. Steel, GI, HDPE, waste plastic, and polypropylene fibres with various aspect ratios are used in this study. The study is mainly focused on compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength, shear strength and impact strength.
III. MATERIALS USED
A. Cement
Bharathi cement, a regular Portland cement (43 grade) that complies with a IS: 8112  1989 criteria, is used in the experimentation. In table 1, the properties of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) 43 grade are listed.
Table 1: Properties of cement used
Material property 
Results 
Specific gravity 
3.15 
Fineness 
4% 
Normal consistency 
30% 
Initial setting time 
30 minutes 
Final setting time 
5 hours 45 minutes 
B. Fine Aggregates
Local sand conforming to IS 3831970, with ZoneII has been used here. Table 2 displays the fine aggregates' physical characteristics.
Table 2 Physical properties of fine aggregate (as per IS: 3831970)
Material property 
Results 
Specific gravity 
2.58 
Water absorption 
1% 
Density 
1752 kg/m3 
Zone 
II 
C. Coarse Aggregates
Locally available crushed coarse aggregate are used. Coarse aggregates conform to IS: 3831970 and 23861963 (I, II, and III) requirements. The physical properties are listed in Table 3.
Table 3 Physical properties of coarse aggregate
Material property 
Results 
Specific gravity 
2.61 
Water absorption 
0.6 % 
Density 
1782 kg/m3 
D. Steel Fibres (SF)
The steel fibres used are 40 mm length, 1mm in thickness, with an aspect ratio of 40. Another steel fiber of length 100 mm, 1mm thick, with 100 aspect ratio are also employed. Steel fibres are added 1% by volume fraction. Steel fibre has a maximum tensile strength of 395 N/mm2 and a density 7850 kg/m3.
E. Galvanized Iron Fibers (GIF)
Galvanized iron wires are collected from nearby shop and cut into pieces with lengths of 40 and 100 mm. The diameter of GI fibre is found to be 1mm. The aspect ratio of GI fibres is 40 and 100. GI fibre has an ultimate strength of 395 N/mm2 and a density of 7850 kg/m3.
F. High Density Polyethylene Fibers (HDPEF)
High density polyethylene fibres are obtained by cutting oil cans found at petrol pumps. These cans are cut into fibre form measuring 40 mm and 100 mm in length and 1 mm in width. The thickness is found as 1 mm as a result, the aspect ratio is 40 and 100. HDPE fibres have a density of 900 kg/m3.
G. Waste Plastic Fiber (WPF)
Waste plastic fibres, are obtained by cutting the used plastic buckets. Plastic fibres had lengths 40 and 100 mm. Thickness of fibres is found as 1 mm. Thus, aspect ratio of fibres was 40 and 100.
H. Poly Propylene Fiber (PPF)
They are commercially available fibres. 6 mm and 12 mm length, PPF fibres are used in the experiment. PPF fibres have a bulk density of 930 kg/m3.
IV. MIX DESIGN FOR M 30 GRADE OF CONCRETE
The mix design for M30 concrete has yielded the following quantities.
Cement = 413.33 kg/m3
Water = 186.00 kg/m3
Fine aggregate = 652.00 kg/m3
Coarse aggregate = 1123.0 kg/m3
W/C = 0.45
Therefore, actual quantities of different constituents required as per the mix proportion per bag of cement are as follows:
Table 4: Mix proportion for M 30 grade concrete
Grade of concrete 
Cement 
Fine aggregate 
Coarse aggregate 
W/C 
M 30 
1.00 
1.58 
2.71 
0.45 
V. PROCEDURE
The concrete mix used was 1:1.58:2.71, with a watercement ratio of 0.45 which corresponding to M30 grade concrete. For compressive strength, specimens of size 150 mm×150mm×150 mm were cast, and all specimens were validated in accordance with IS 516:1959.
The cylindrical specimens used for tensile strength were 300 mm in length and 150 m diameter. Split tensile strength test was conducted on prepared specimens using Indian Standard 5816:1999. Similarly, beam specimens of size 100mm x 100mm x 500mm were employed for flexural strength testing. Impact strength test specimens were 150mm in diameter and 60mm in height, while shear strength test specimens were of Lshaped.
VI. TEST RESULTS
A. Compressive Strength Test Results
Table 5 gives the compressive strength test results of concrete for different fibres and hybrid fibres. The variation of compressive strength is represented in fig.1.
Table 5: Results of compressive strength
Concrete produced with different fibres 
Specimen identification 
Aspect ratio 
Average compressive strength (MPa) 
SF 
A 
40 
41.19 
B 
100 
38.22 

C 
40+100 
39.56 

GI 
D 
40 
40.15 
E 
100 
37.93 

F 
40+100 
38.67 

HDPE 
G 
40 
36.89 
H 
100 
35.56 

I 
40+100 
36 

WPF 
J 
40 
34.96 
K 
100 
33.63 

L 
40+100 
34.07 

PPF 
M 
300 
33.04 
N 
600 
31.85 

O 
300+600 
32.3 
B. Tensile Strength Test Results
Table 6 gives the tensile strength test results of concrete for different fibres and hybrid fibres. The variation of tensile strength is represented in fig.2.
Table 6: Results of tensile strength
Concrete produced with different fibres 
Specimen identification 
Aspect ratio 
Tensile strength (MPa) 
SF 
A 
40 
4.29 
B 
100 
4.1 

C 
40+100 
4.2 

GI 
D 
40 
4.01 
E 
100 
3.87 

F 
40+100 
3.96 

HDPE 
G 
40 
3.82 
H 
100 
3.63 

I 
40+100 
3.77 

WPF 
J 
40 
3.58 
K 
100 
3.49 

L 
40+100 
3.54 

PPF 
M 
300 
3.3 
N 
600 
3.16 

O 
300+600 
3.25 
C. Flexural Strength Test Results
Table 7 gives the flexural strength test results of concrete for different fibres and hybrid fibres. The variation of flexural strength is represented in fig.3.
Table 7: Results of flexural strength
Concrete produced with different fibres 
Specimen identification 
Aspect ratio 
Flexural strength (MPa) 
SF 
A 
40 
11.27 
B 
100 
10.58 

C 
40+100 
10.79 

GI 
D 
40 
10.65 
E 
100 
10.16 

F 
40+100 
10.23 

HDPE 
G 
40 
9.2 
H 
100 
8.78 

I 
40+100 
8.99 

WPF 
J 
40 
8.5 
K 
100 
8.02 

L 
40+100 
8.3 

PPF 
M 
300 
8.16 
N 
600 
7.67 

O 
300+600 
8.02 
D. Shear Strength Test Results
Table 8 gives the shear strength test results of concrete for different fibres and hybrid fibres. The variation of shear strength is represented in fig.4.
Table 8: Results of shear strength
Concrete produced with different fibres 
Specimen identification 
Aspect ratio 
Shear strength (MPa) 
SF 
A 
40 
7.96 
B 
100 
7.22 

C 
40+100 
7.59 

GI 
D 
40 
7.78 
E 
100 
7.04 

F 
40+100 
7.41 

HDPE 
G 
40 
6.85 
H 
100 
5.93 

I 
40+100 
6.3 

WPF 
J 
40 
5.93 
K 
100 
5.56 

L 
40+100 
5.74 

PPF 
M 
300 
5.19 
N 
600 
4.81 

O 
300+600 
5 
E. Impact Strength Test Results
Table 9 gives the impact strength test results of concrete for different fibres and hybrid fibres. The variation of impact strength is represented in fig.5.
Table 9: Results of impact strength
Concrete produced with different fibres 
Specimen identification 
Aspect ratio 
Impact strength (Nm) 
SF 
A 
40 
6992.1 
B 
100 
5401.74 

C 
40+100 
6183.21 

GI 
D 
40 
5634.81 
E 
100 
4915.04 

F 
40+100 
5127.54 

HDPE 
G 
40 
4160.99 
H 
100 
3571.46 

I 
40+100 
4085.58 

WPF 
J 
40 
3790.82 
K 
100 
3358.95 

L 
40+100 
3509.76 

PPF 
M 
300 
3091.61 
N 
600 
2378.685 

O 
300+600 
2851.68 
VII. OBSERVATION AND DISCUSSIONS
Following observations are made based on the experimental results.
Following conclusions may be drawn based on the study. 1) The strength characteristics of fibre reinforced concrete such as compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength, shear strength and impact strength decrease as the aspect ratio of fibre increase. For any fibre there exists an optimum aspect ratio which have to be found from the experimentation. 2) The strength characteristics of hybrid fibre reinforced concrete such as compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength, shear strength and impact strength containing fibres with different aspect ratio (40+100) are higher as compared to that of fibre reinforced concrete with an aspect ratio 100, which proves the synergistic effect of hybrid fibres. 3) The strength characteristics of steel fibre reinforced concrete and steel hybrid fibre reinforced concrete are higher as compared to that of fibres GI, HDPE, WPF and PPF. The least value is observed for concrete with PPF fibres. The descending order of fibres w.r.t strength characteristics may be written as SF, GI, HDPE, WPF and PPF.
[1] Shikha Shrivastava, Vijay Kumar Shrivastava “Behavior of concrete using the hybrid fiber with and without fly ash” (2018). IJIRST –International Journal for Innovative Research in Science & Technology, Volume 4, Issue 9, February 2018, ISSN: 23496010, PP: 46. [2] Kannan Rajkumar P.R, Krishnaraj L, Shyam Sundar C “Characteristic studies on high performance hybrid fibre reinforced concrete” International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics Volume 118 No. 20 2018, ISSN: 13118080 PP: 21472153 (2018). [3] Rajaram M, Ravichandran A and Muthadhi A “Studies on hybrid fiber concrete with GGBS” (2018). International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, Volume 119, ISSN: 13143395 PP581595. [4] Kulkarni S K, Kekade G.A, Halkude S A “Experimental study on hybrid fiber reinforced concrete deep beams” (2017). SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering (SSRGIJCE) – volume 4 Issue 2 – February 2017, ISSN: 2348 – 8352, PP3440. [5] Shahzaeb Azam Chowdhary and Kshipra Kapoor “A review on durability and mechanical properties of steel, poly propylene and hybrid fibre reinforced concrete” (2017). International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) ISSN: 23950056 Volume: 04 Issue: 10  Oct 2017 PP8790. [6] Mounika K and Suchith Reddy A “Performance of supplementary cementitious materialbased hybrid fibre reinforced concrete” (2017). International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 6, Issue 6, June 2017, ISSN(Online): 23198753, pp1051710525. [7] Pravin R. Dalvi and Rathi V R ” Workability of hybrid fiber reinforced selfcompacting concrete” (2017). International Journal of Innovations in Engineering Sciences and Technology: Civil , volume. 3, issue. 2 ISSN: 24552933, PP 19.
Copyright © 2023 Dr. Rudraswamy M P, Dr. B. R Patagundi. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Paper Id : IJRASET48984
Publish Date : 20230203
ISSN : 23219653
Publisher Name : IJRASET
DOI Link : Click Here