The UK is one of the most developed countries today. It is also distinguished by its politics, economy, education, culture and art and literature. In turn, the steady improvement in the field of journalism is significant in that the field is given broad rights and freedoms. The question is, has journalism been sustainable since time immemorial? What topics did the critical materials, i.e. feuilletons, pamphlets, critical shows and broadcasts, cover in their time and what events and incidents caused it? To what extent did the government respond to critical materials? We find answers to some of these questions in the process of studying the pamphlet genre.
I. THE MAIN PART
The history of journalism in the United Kingdom includes the gathering and transmitting of news, spans the growth of technology and trade, marked by the advent of specialised techniques for gathering and disseminating information on a regular basis. In the analysis of historians, it involves the steady increase of the scope of news available to us and the speed with which it is transmitted. Newspapers have always been the primary medium of journalists since 1700, with magazines added in the 18th century, radio and television in the 20th century, and the Internet in the 21st century. London has always been the main center of British journalism, followed at a distance by Edinburgh, Belfast, Dublin, and regional cities.
The growth of British journalism began in the 1520s. The pamphlet genre was typically used for discussions on various religious traditions in the decade after 1520. In Europe, the press was used to wage war against religion, and Britain was no exception. Written materials, and the sharp-edged word in general, had great potential to change the general opinion of the people. In the 1560s, the press was first used to deliver news. Pamphlet articles were first published in 1562 about British troops sent to help the French Huguenots. In 1569, pamphlets were again used to report the North Earls revolt. The pamphlet became increasingly popular until 1688, when it served as the main method of public support for ideas. After the glorious revolution, the pamphlet lost some popularity due to the appearance of newspapers and periodicals, but remained an important factor.
Pamphlets began as a tool for religious debate. Therefore, religious topics were one of the main topics they considered and criticized. The pamphlet is a short work on political or religious issues, depending on its goals and objectives, its content. Many articles have been created in this genre. These include the Civil War, the teachings of the Church of England, the Parliamentary Acts, the Popish Conspiracy, the Stuart Age, and the Cromwell Propaganda vassals. The pamphlets were also used for romance, fiction, autobiography, personal humiliation, and social criticism. Most of them are articles on world politics. They covered much of the propaganda of the 17th century during a period of religious and political unrest. They were also used for discussions between the Puritans and the Anglicans. During the glorious revolution, pamphlets served as political weapons.
Scholars have conducted a variety of research on Britain’s pre-Civil War news, policies, intrigues, and scandals. The study identified hundreds of handwritten pamphlets that provide detailed information about them. These manuscripts were researched and collected by Dr. Noa Millstone, a historian at the University of Brimmingham, in the Early Stewart Manuscript Booklet in England project.
In the course of the research, the project team used more than 50 archives from Britain and the United States, transcribed and digitized historical data from the British Library to local writing offices and small libraries, and hundreds of manuscripts before the start of the Civil War (1642). They created a database in a completely new style. He posted the information on a special page via social media. Now these materials can be searched, read, downloaded and used free of charge from anywhere, anytime. This style creates a number of innovations in the study of future English life and history. This database provides access to information from any academic to teacher to student.
Before the Civil War, the English pamphlet had a large, influential, and often radical culture. Speeches, letters, briefings, and dialogues were combined with the killing of mixed literary heroes, secret histories, and conspiracy theories. The publication of certain works, including tracts of political or religious dissidents, was also considered very dangerous in the environment of that period. The articles included reflections on important criminal trials and recent events. British foreign policy and foreign news, as well as religious debates, were widely covered.
Dr. Millstone says at the end of the research product; “This manuscript database allows researchers and students to see completely different aspects of 17th-century England. The materials we are able to provide show that, like their contemporary colleagues, 17th-century readers were interested in sexual violence and government corruption and took conspiracy theories very seriously.” By the end of the 17th century, the most effective means of persuading and communicating was the pamphlet, which created influential moral and political communities of readers and thus formed a "public circle" of popular political thought. For this reason, by the 19th century, another collection of pamphlet articles had been created. Using long-term perspectives and extensive historical, bibliographic, and factual texts, the book includes articles on the harmony of literary form, the diversity of genres and imagery used by the authors of the pamphlets, and how the researchers interacted with the pamphlets and how they both influenced politics. aimed at.
The collection is housed in 7 universities in the UK and includes 26,000 pamphlets in this over a million page collection. It includes the Cohen treatises (1603-1898), the Earl Gray treatise collection (1800-1900), the Foreign and Commonwealth Office collection (1545-1900), the Hume treatise (1769-1890), the Knowsley treatise collection (1792-1868), and the University of Manchester. , A collection of British political pamphlets (1799-1900), the London School of Economics and Political Science (1800-1899), the University of Bristol (1800-1899), Wilson's Anti-Slavery Collection (1761-1900), and many other pamphlet articles.
It is clear that no matter how developed Britain is, violence, corruption, injustice, and an unjust system have a negative impact on society. In this way, new pamphlets can be created. In the system of journalism, the media is mainly based on journalism in order to increase the public\'s interest in daily information, news and social, political information, as a consumer. Journalism is all about providing solid and reliable information, as well as speed. Year after year, the new, modern look of the media, professional development, and the priority of skill have increased the need for experienced journalists. It was this need that led to the creation of the School of Journalism in Britain, as in many other countries. A number of privileges, opportunities and freedoms have been created for journalists. As a result, government pressure on critical analysis has eased significantly.
Creativity in journalism today is quite stable. For this reason, writing and publishing pamphlets in modern journalism does not intimidate or panic a journalist.
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