Distribution Transformers are a critical part of the electrical power system. Data collection and transformer condition monitoring are very important for preventing transformer failures. In order to monitor the transformer, the operator has to visit the transformer premises. The main purpose of the project is to monitor the transformer parameters such as temperature, current, voltage, and oil level using IoT. Sensor networks are used to obtain transformer parameters. This system can minimize work effort, improve accuracy, reliability, and efficiency. This received data is sent to the Arduino UNO microcontroller. The recorded data is sent through ESP 8266 Wi-Fi module and accessed from anywhere around the world using IOT technology using HTTP protocol. This helps in identifying without human dependency. This helps in identifying and solving a problem before a failure without human dependency.
The Internet of Things refers to the collective network of connected devices and the technology that facilitates communication between devices and the cloud, as well as between the devices themselves. IOT allows objects to be sensed or controlled remotely across existing network infrastructure, creating opportunities for more direct integration of the physical world into computer-based systems and resulting in improved efficiency, accuracy, and economic benefits other than reduced human intervention. Transformer durability can be increased by operating them in good and rated condition. Overloading and inefficient cooling of transformers can cause unexpected failure in transformers, which can disturb the delivery of electricity to many consumers. SCADA can be used for online monitoring of power transformers, but it is an expensive approach.
The manual checkup of rise in voltage, rise in temperature, load current, oil level etc. tends to be more complex. This manual monitoring does not provide information about occasional overloads and overheating of transformer oil and temperature. The proposed system based on IOT collets key operational parameters of the transformer which will help the utilities to optimally use their transformers and keep the asset in operation for longer period. Thus the system helps to improve transformer life by identifying the problem before the failure occur. The monitored parameters are compared to the transformer's rated values, and the Arduino is programmed to take protective action if the monitored values surpass the rated values, also displays the monitored values on a remote PC.
Temperature sensors calculate the amount of heat energy or even coldness generated by an object or device, allowing us to "feel" or detect any physical change in that temperature, providing an analogue or digital output. The DHT11 series of precision integrated-circuit temperature sensors have an output voltage that is proportional to the temperature in Celsius (Centigrade). In comparison to linear temperature sensors measured in degrees Kelvin, the DHT11 has the advantage of not requiring the consumer to remove a significant constant voltage from the output to obtain convenient Centigrade scaling
Table 1. Existing Vs Proposed System
In this existing system the worker has to find the fault manually
Sensor based intelligent fault detection system is mainly conceptualized in such a way that the time required to identify the fault is reduced
Drawbacks of existing system: The time requires for identifying the fault is more. The worker has to go manually to identify the fault.
Advantages of proposed system: The time required for identifying the fault is less. The microcontroller will send the identified fault to the WEB SERVER using IOT technology.
B. Software Aspects
The software algorithms are developed in Arduino IDE software which is an open source application. This application allows you to encode, compile and upload files to your Arduino device. All these things happen with the help of microcontroller’s native language. The algorithm starts with the initialization of the I/O port data stream. Then according to the algorithm he starts to command the sequence. We have to take voltage, current, temperature and oil level readings continuously and send them to Blynk App by using Wi-Fi. With the help of the Blynk App the operators can monitor data anytime, anywhere. Also it’s an open source application. If any parameter value exceeds beyond its threshold value then Arduino trips the power supply.
The proposed system uses an Arduino to monitor a distribution transformer's voltage, current, oil level, and temperature. These distribution transformer parameters can be displayed on a computer or mobile device using IoT technology, which is a high-performance technology that integrates database recording and simulation on a single platform. The monitored parameters are compared to the transformer's rated values, and the Arduino is programmed to take protective action if the monitored values surpass the rated values, displaying the value on a remote PC. Transformer temperature and oil level was detected using an LM35 temperature sensor and a ultrasonic sensor.
The Arduino receives these values as inputs and executes the desired operation. The Arduino will switch off the power supply to the delivery transformer if the voltage and current values surpass the rated values (overloading). If the temperature of the delivery transformer increases above the rated values, the Arduino can switch off the power supply (overheating). The microcontroller is programmed to constantly scan the transformer and adjust the parameters at fixed intervals.
Compared to manual monitoring, the IOT-based monitoring of distribution transformer is quite useful for us. Because it is not possible to monitor the voltage, current, oil level and temperature rise manually. So it is also reliable for us. If any abnormality occurs, the operator gets a notification in real-time and automatic tripping of the circuit takes place to prevent any failures of distribution transformers. Thus, we can recover the system in less time and faults before any uncertain failures. Thus, this system is cost-saving. As the controller that we used has a small size compared to other controllers. The overall size of the whole setup is also small.
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 Siddhant Gaikwad, Raj Mehta, Prathamesh Shetye, Jay Khut, Kavita Bani, “GSM based Distribution Transformer Monitoring System” International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) 2017.
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