The excavator machines are power machines used in the Agricultural, Mining and Construction industry. The main purpose of this excavator is for digging, ground leveling and material transport operations etc. The excavator bucket part is subjected to various load forces. So in this project, the work is carried on the bucket by interchanging the composite materials like gray cast iron and vanadium. Since the bucket experienced so many loads like impact during digging transient analysis is carried out, the standard specimen prepared through stir casting technique and conducted tests on the specimen like tensile, compression, hardness, and impact test to validate the data. The main objective of this project is to design an excavator bucket using CATIA V5 software of 3-D modeling software. Then simulation did through ANSYS 19.2 software by transient analysis technique to know the deformation and stresses etc. And the results of deformation and stress are compared between Gray Cast Iron without Vanadium and Grey Cast Iron with Vanadium for comparing justified result.
The main purpose of excavator machine is for digging the lands or mines, demolition, lifting heavy jobs etc. in this paper analysis carried out digging type excavator and optimized by interchanging the material.
In this paper the material chosen for preparing specimen though stir casting technique. The composition of material is 99.5 % of grey cast and 0.5 % of vanadium to enhance the properties of bucket6. The comparative study with the structural steel and ductile cast iron excavator buckets, which are the most commonly used for manufacturing processes for an excavator bucket. In addition, it was preferred to develop an optimized material which will decrease the weight of the component and enhance the properties. The following table indicates enchantment of properties by using vanadium for the bucket material. And also comparison between without addition of vanadium for material for manufacturing bucket 3.
This is the procedure that can explain to determining the unknown parameters for the given excavator bucket as boundary conditions and solving the problem through transient analysis technique. The following procedure adopted to validate results5.
The below flow chart describes the methodology to determining the problem in exiting design, drafting and analyzing the bucket, experimentation and comparison of results for validation.
III. IDENTIFYING THE PROBLEM
For a digging type bucket there is impact force created on teeth of the bucket while digging, so in less duration of time large amount force applied on the teeth. In that case more stress is induced in the teeth part.
The bucket is subjected to various loads but generally failure occurs at the fixed position of the bucket and bushing and this will be at the centre of the bushing or at teeth end of excavator bucket. In such a condition the failure is due to maximum stresses acting when the bucket carries load and also while digging. So the stresses are applicable at the bushing and teeth portion.
A. Specimen Preparation
Stir casting is the method employed to prepare the specimens. Gray cast iron (ASTM 40) which has excellent casting performance and vanadium (99.5% & 0.5%) of weight to volume ratio have been taken into the consideration to prepare the specimen. Results show that the weight percentage of material exhibits better results1. The specimen was casted at 1204oC and at a stirring speed ranging in between 600-700 RPM for 15 minutes. Results implicate that the 0.5% inclusion of vanadium in raw grey cast iron has shown improvement of properties that are listed in the above table1. The standard specimen size mentioned below.
The ANSYS 19.2 software is used to analyze bucket under various boundary conditions which is explained below.
These are the results are obtained through the ANSYS software. The solution can be obtained by dividing into 3 cases.
Case I:At 15696N (standard load) the results are obtained for Excavator bucket made of Gray Cast Iron without Vanadium and with Vanadium.
Case II:At 18000N load the results are obtained for Excavator bucket made of Gray Cast Iron without Vanadium and with Vanadium.
Case III:At 20000N load the results are obtained for Excavator bucket made of Gray Cast Iron without Vanadium and with Vanadium.
A. Case I
The following working conditions are considered to obtain ANSYS results. By placing the excavator bucket in standard load condition we can observe the following ANSYS results.
B. Results and Discussions
Experimental analysis is done on excavator bucket by comparing with and without inclusion of vanadium, under this conditions the behavior bucket is observed to know the critical loading conditions.
Under maximum loading condition, by the inclusion of vanadium in the material which improves the Total deformation, Equivalent stress, Shear stress, Maximum Principal stress compared with normal conditions.
Experimental testing like tensile test, compression test, impact test and hardness tests are done on the both materials i.e. Gray Cast Iron with Vanadium and Gray Cast Iron without Vanadium. In which we observed that Gray Cast Iron with Vanadium has better results than the Gray Cast Iron without Vanadium.
We would like to conclude that at 15696N, 18000N, and 20000N load conditions will gives satisfactory results while choosing the Gray Cast Iron with vanadium as excavator bucket material while considering stress by maintain adequate structural strength and stability. And compare with Gray cast iron without vanadium results are very much satisfactory.
We would like to conclude also that at 15696N, 18000N, and 20000N load conditions will gives satisfactory results while choosing the Gray Cast Iron with vanadium as excavator bucket material while considering deformation factor. Gary cast iron with vanadium has less deformation then the normal gray cast iron.
By adding 0.5g of vanadium to the Gray cast iron we got 0.638% reduction in weight while comparing with Gray Cast Iron without Vanadium. Also the deformation or displacement by adding 0.5g of vanadium to the Gray Cast Iron, we got 14.124% reduction while compare with Gray Cast Iron without Vanadium at standard load condition.
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