In the modern world solar energy is used various types of applications. This research uses solar energy to dry agricultural products (Ginger). The scientific and family name of ginger is Zingiber officinale. Ginger is used in the Medical field, cooking, etc. Dried ginger is used by enhancing digestion, which aids in burning fat that has been accumulated and digesting blood sugar, dry ginger promotes weight loss. In scientific studies, dry ginger has been shown to reduce triglyceride and total cholesterol levels. Dry ginger is a fantastic all-natural treatment for lowering excessive blood sugar levels. In this research, the solar dryer is consist of a pin fin with phase change materials. Paraffin wax is a phase change material here used to store latent heat. At sunrise, the energy is stored in the paraffin wax, and at sunset, the energy is released to heat the air. The result shows that thermodynamic performance has improved and hot air discharging time has increased by three and a half hours.
Dried fruits give more fiber and antioxidants to health. In this research, the forced convection solar air dryer consisted of locally available materials. The phase change materials are used here to store the energy to additionally heat the air. The air is passed inside the solar air heater (SAH) with different velocities with help of a blower. The air velocity is measured with help of an anemometer. So we can easily calculate the velocity of air. The valve system controls the air-flowing velocity. Paraffin wax is a phase change material used here to store heat energy. Block color paint-coated glass is used as a flat plate collector. Paraffin wax materials are filled inside the hollow tube called a pin fin. The pin fin is an aluminum pipe material. The solar dryer was consisted and tested in the local area of VSB College of Engineering Technical Campus, kinathukadavu, Coimbatore.
II. PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION
Solar dryers consist of different types. In the open drying method, the agriculture products are affected by fungi and odor and birds. Solar dryers are used to reduce this kind of problem and increase efficiency and quick drying.
The maximum temperature of the exit air increases to approximately 64°C at a mass velocity of 0.01 kg/m2 s and to 47°C at a mass velocity of 0.04 kg/m2 s. The longer contact time between the drying air and the heated surfaces inside the collector is what causes the higher collector outlet temperature of 0.01 kg/m2. s. As air mass velocity rises, the temperature at the collection outlet falls.
The level of drying air must rise above 100 to 250 C in order to dry the majority of agricultural products. With a mass flow rate of 0.02 kg/m2 s, the dryer is run. When solar drying is used, the temperature variation of the desiccant inside the drying chamber with and without phase change material is shown in figure 7.
The average temperature rise of desiccant with paraffin wax is approximately 59.70 C, whereas it is approximately 570 C for desiccant. The temperature varies by roughly two to three degrees Celsius overall, reaching its peak at about one in the afternoon. In five trays, a mass of 25 kg of ginger was dried, and the weight of the sample in each drying mode was determined every hour. Figure 7 depicts the changes in moisture content of turmeric dried using the open-air method, the solar dryer, and both with and without a desiccant unit integrated during the course of the trial period.
In the case of open sun drying, the equilibrium moisture content of about 8% was reached in 94 hours; in the case of forced convection solar drying without the integration of a desiccant unit, in 57 hours; in the case of forced convection solar drying with the integration of a desiccant and phase change material, in 43 hours; and in the case of forced convection solar drying with the integration of a desiccant and phase change material, in 37 hours. When forced convection solar drying is used for 8 hours, from 9 am to 5 pm, the moisture level variation is nearly the same at the end of the first day. There is no evidence of a steady rate of drying for any of the drying situations; only falling rate periods were observed. The solid desiccant's use of paraffin wax advances the drying process by 6 hours.
An integrated solid desiccant has been incorporated into the design and construction of the forced convection solar dryer and paraffin wax mixed. Simple tools and resources were used to construct the experimental apparatus. Under various weather circumstances, the dryer was tested using forced convection solar drying with the integration of a desiccant unit and paraffin wax. The results of the current study show the following: During gloomy and non-sunny hours, the solid desiccant may aid in the drying process. When solar dryers are combined with desiccant and paraffin wax, the dryer can dry 25 kg of ginger in two sunny days. Without integrating the desiccant unit into the drying system, the drying time is found to be reduced by 50% of the time needed. Paraffin wax is added to the desiccant mold to assist store a little more energy and speed up the drying process. The incorporation of desiccant units into the drying process and the low-cost desiccant materials discovered to have potential in drying applications can result in more continuous drying.
 Shalaby, S.M. and Bek, M.A., 2014. Experimental investigation of a novel indirect solar dryer implementing PCM as energy storage medium. Energy conversion and management, 83, pp.1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2014.03.043.
 Çakmak, G. and Y?ld?z, C., 2011. The drying kinetics of seeded grape in solar dryer with PCM-based solar integrated collector. Food and bioproducts processing, 89(2), pp.103-108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbp.2010.04.001.
 Atalay, H. and Cankurtaran, E., 2021. Energy, exergy, exergoeconomic and exergo-environmental analyses of a large scale solar dryer with PCM energy storage medium. Energy, 216, p.119221. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2020.119221.
 Karthikeyan, R., Kumar, R.A., Manikandan, P. and Senthilnathan, A.K., 2021. Investigation of solar air heater with phase change materials using packed bed absorber plate. Materials Today: Proceedings, 45, pp.1360-1365. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.06.236.
 Karthik, R., Mani, R. and Manikandan, P., 2021. Tribological studies of Ni-SiC and Ni-Al2O3 composite coatings by Pulsed Electrodeposition. Materials Today: Proceedings, 37, pp.701-706. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.05.717.
 Rakshamuthu, S., Jegan, S., Benyameen, J.J., Selvakumar, V., Anandeeswaran, K. and Iyahraja, S., 2021. Experimental analysis of small size solar dryer with phase change materials for food preservation. Journal of Energy Storage, 33, p.102095. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.est.2020.102095.
 Karaa?aç, M.O., Ergün, A., A?bulut, Ü., Gürel, A.E. and Ceylan, I., 2021. Experimental analysis of CPV/T solar dryer with nano-enhanced PCM and prediction of drying parameters using ANN and SVM algorithms. Solar Energy, 218, pp.57-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2021.02.028.
 Mofijur, M., Mahlia, T.M.I., Silitonga, A.S., Ong, H.C., Silakhori, M., Hasan, M.H., Putra, N. and Rahman, S.A., 2019. Phase change materials (PCM) for solar energy usages and storage: An overview. Energies, 12(16), p.3167. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12163167.
 Sharma, M., Atheaya, D. and Kumar, A., 2021. Recent advancements of PCM based indirect type solar drying systems: A state of art. Materials Today: Proceedings, 47, pp.5852-5855. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2021.04.280.
 Rezaei, M., Sefid, M., Almutairi, K., Mostafaeipour, A., Ao, H.X., Dehshiri, S.J.H., Dehshiri, S.S.H., Chowdhury, S. and Techato, K., 2022. Investigating performance of a new design of forced convection solar dryer. Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, 50, p.101863. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seta.2021.101863.
 A Ravinthiran et al 2020 IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 988 012044.
 Chaatouf, D., Salhi, M., Raillani, B., Amraqui, S. and Mezrhab, A., 2021. Assessment of a heat storage system within an indirect solar dryer to improve the efficiency and the dynamic behavior. Journal of Energy Storage, 41, p.102874. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.est.2021.102874.
 Vijayrakesh, K., Muthuvel, S., Gopinath, G.R., Qarnain, S.S. and Bathrinath, S., 2021. Experimental investigation of the performance of paraffin wax-packed floor on a solar dryer. Journal of Energy Storage, 43, p.103163. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.est.2021.103163.
 Gopinath, G.R., Muthuvel, S., Muthukannan, M., Sudhakarapandian, R., Kumar, B.P., Kumar, C.S. and Thanikanti, S.B., 2022. Design, development, and performance testing of thermal energy storage based solar dryer system for seeded grapes. Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, 51, p.101923. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seta.2021.101923.
 Swami, V.M., Autee, A.T. and Anil, T.R., 2018. Experimental analysis of solar fish dryer using phase change material. Journal of Energy Storage, 20, pp.310-315. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.est.2018.09.016.
 Subramaniam, B.S.K., Sugumaran, A.K. and Athikesavan, M.M., 2022. Performance analysis of a solar dryer integrated with thermal energy storage using PCM-Al2O3 nanofluids. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, pp.1-15. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-19170-6