Authors: Gouthami Purohit, Deepthi Shetty, Samskruthi P K, Blessinta Dsouza, Yajnesh K
Certificate: View Certificate
Around 15 million two-wheelers are sold annually in India, where one in three homes has a two-wheeler. The country produces 20 million units of two-wheelers annually. Severe underinflation can result in mechanical and thermal stress brought on by overheating, which can very quickly cause the tyre to blow out. Failures of this nature may result in dangers and mishaps that jeopardise not only the rider but also those around him or her. Under-inflated tyres cause tread separation and tyre failure, resulting in 40,000 accidents, 33,000 injuries, and over 700 fatalities each year, according to average country estimates. However, when taking into account India\'s population, these figures may soar due to a high number of people owning more 2-wheelers, having less time to physically check, and being unable to routinely get their cars inspected at a repair facility. Without the riders\' knowledge, the aforementioned issues will occur more frequently. This project focuses on designing and creating a direct tyre pressure monitoring system (TPMS), which uses a pressure sensor to measure air pressure taken straight from the tyre. The rider does not need to get out of his vehicle and manually pump air into his tyres when the TPMS detects a reduced tyre pressure because the TPMS and the compressor unit are working together to supply the air to the tyre. Energy is provided to the gadget either by a dynamo or a backup battery. To ensure consistency and accuracy in reporting the pressure and providing enough air to the tyre, the key components must be calibrated. Although there are numerous challenges and constraints, this prototype is a promising product for use in the real world.
Without a doubt, the most significant aspect of an automobile is safety. Any vehicle can malfunction for a number of reasons. Inadequate tyre air pressure is the main reason for tyre blowouts. While under-inflation causes around 75% of tyre burst-related incidents, overinflation is still not a worry. According to studies, driving with under-inflated tyres dramatically increases fuel consumption as well as CO2 emissions. Unavoidable tyre wear occurs during use and is impacted by the kind of vehicle, tyre characteristics, type of road, ambient conditions, and driving conditions. In general, a tyre burst happens when pressurized air quickly escapes from the tyre. The tyre cannot hold all that air inside when its structural integrity is damaged. This results in the compressed air bursting into flames and seriously damaging the tyre surface as it quickly tears through the tyre. The severity of all these issues can be reduced with regular vehicle maintenance; there are various ways to accomplish this. The Tire Pressure Monitoring System is one of the most significant systems (TPMS). In actuality, lowering the tyre pressure could shorten tyre life, deteriorate the vehicle's adhesion qualities, extend stopping distances, and even cause a sudden tyre failure. Tire wear and tear results in significant waste production, and the increasing usage of plastics—which are resistant to hydrolysis, decomposition, and biological degradation—is contributing to a global ecological crisis. This makes the disposal of most plastics a highly complicated problem. Tire related waste is categorized as a type of rubbish that needs to be processed industrially. The globe is looking for ways to extend the safe operation of tyres and use them more effectively. Following cornering manoeuvres and driving speed, driving behaviours such as braking, accelerating, and not maintaining the right tyre pressure had the greatest effect on tyre wear. Thus, it appears that keeping an eye on tyre pressure and avoiding abrupt acceleration and braking could greatly reduce tyre wear. And this is why Our solution for the rider's and passenger's safety is important. In case of an emergency, it will also include a compressor unit to fill the tyre. The combined efforts of the TMPS and Compressor unit give the user a better experience.
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
Temperature affects the tire pressure, to control maximum heat, the following steps are brought into consideration: 1.The limit ranges before filling the air are set separately for both the front and rear tires. 2.Display units for keeping track of entire process. 3.Buzzer Alarms mainly for emergency situations to avoid any further consequences. 4. Pressure sensors for data collection, connectivity, data processing etc. 5. Compressors to fill the air inside tires. 6.Microcontroller for better communication between sensors.
A. Proposed System
Below is the block diagram of the transmitter and the receiver unit. 1. The transmitter has the TPMS is connected to the valves at the front and rear tires for continuous monitoring pressure in the tire. 2. The receiver consists of a display unit. 3. The transmitter and receiver and transmitter are connected through a wired connection.
C. Pneumatic Circuit
Below is the pneumatic circuit of the compressor unit. Pneumatic circuit consists of the compressor and two valves with a pneumatic back line compressor, connected to valves which is connected to the pneumatic pipeline which is then connected to the wheels so the pressure sensor is connected in between valve and the tire. Whenever the pressure is sensed in the pressure sensor the response is given to the TPMS and if the pressure is less than the range then the valve is turned ON and the compressor is also turned ON along with-it Air is added into the wheel which increases the pressure of the Tire and once the adequate pressure is reached the valves turn OFF and the compressor turned OFF.
The experimental setup consists of a frame to which a support arm us connected which is then connected to the wheel setup.
The support arm is connected to suspensions which is then connected to the weight plate. The wheel and motor are connected to support arm.
And under the wheel is a treadmill like setup. The treadmill setup and weights constitute to replicate real time performance for analysis.
IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
A. Expected Outcome
The system will be feasible with most of the 2-wheeler vehicles, To provide users with a smooth experience of inflating the tyre without having to go through a long procedure. The system will have alerting features with few tire health monitoring features as well.
B. Market analysis
An electronic device called the Tire Pressure Measuring System is utilised to keep track of the tire's temperature and air pressure while also showing those values in real time on the screen. This notifies the driver of the vehicle's driver of the change in tyre pressure. Vehicle performance, safety, mileage, and shortened tyre life are some of the main factors that are connected to the reduction of vehicle pressure. The device like TPMS has helped in reducing the number of accidents along with helping in increasing the fuel milage, durability of tires and better handling of vehicle by the driver. The batteries used in TPMS can last from 6 to 10 years. Because of pandemic, the market saw a decrease in the manufacturing of the device. However, now the market is coming back to normal and hence it is expected that the demand will be higher again in the future. The TPMS market was halted for a while but now numerous governments have given leverage for the import-export trades. The market for tyre pressure monitoring systems (TPMS) was estimated to be worth $5.67 billion in 2021. By 2027, it's anticipated that the value of TPMS in Asia Pacific would increase to 13.60 billion USD.
C. Barriers To Enter The Market
D. Players in market:
Continental AG ZF TRW, Valor TPMS, Delphi Automotive, DENSO Company.The safety solution for India is strengthened by Continental AG in February 2022. India is the largest two-wheeler market in the world, and Continental is primarily focused on offering advanced safety technology, such as ADAS and TPMS. Continental has developed a new combine-tire monitoring system for its Combine Master and Combine Master VF tyres, which will be available in May 2022. They keep tabs on temperature and tyre pressure.
India's first AI-driven smart truck tire-pressure monitoring system, Fleeca Kawach, was introduced in February 2022 by Jaipur-based startup Fleeca India Private Limited. This TPMS is an electronic device positioned on the rim that keeps track of signals emanating from the exterior of the tyres as well as the rotational speed of the wheel.
E. Target audience
As our product is the combination of both tyre pressure monitoring system and inflator, therefore the scale of audience would vary in large scale i.e from common to that of the Supplier.
Possible companies who would buy us that are TVS, Bajaj,
Suzuki, Honda, Royal Enfield, Hero motocorp, Jawa Motorcycles, Boom motors etc and it we can even link it with common motorcycle sale shops to reach a larger number of audience as well as selling it individually through online and offline platforms for it to reach the common man.
We would like to extend our sincere gratitude to our deserved supervisor, parents, and friends, whose assistance, counsel, and stringent supervision allowed us to complete this effort. We are really grateful that they have kindly allowed us access to their extensive technical knowledge and real-world experience. This post would not have taken on its current form without their inspiring words of wisdom, intense curiosity, priceless encouragement, and nice deeds.
To summarize, tyre pressure is an important part of vehicle performance and efficiency, and incorrect tyre pressure can cause heat and mechanical overload and tyre failure, posing a possible hazard to the rider and their surroundings. While installing a monitoring system in larger vehicles is simple, compressing and installing one in 2-wheelers without sacrificing performance or accuracy is a problem. The suggested device would integrate alerting and tyre health monitoring features to provide users with a smooth experience of inflating the tyre without a lengthy operation. The device is planned to be compatible with most two-wheeler vehicles, resulting in more secure and effective trips for riders. Furthermore, having the device placed in 2-wheelers can aid to extend tyre life, reduce fuel consumption, and improve overall vehicle stability. Furthermore, the gadget can save riders both money and time by detecting and correcting any tyre faults early on, avoiding the need for expensive repairs or replacements. Moreover, the gadget is simple to integrate into the existing 2-wheeler system, making it a comfortable and cost-effective alternative for riders. Tire health monitoring tools can also assist motorcyclists in keeping track of their tyre\'s condition and avoiding any unexpected accidents.
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Copyright © 2023 Gouthami Purohit, Deepthi Shetty, Samskruthi P K, Blessinta Dsouza, Yajnesh K. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.