Authors: Dr. N. Krishnan
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The present study is focusing on urbanisation and slum development with special reference to Erode district, Tamilnadu. The urban population in the world is rising generally. The estimates are that more than 60% of the increase in the world’s urban population over the next three decades will be in Asia, mostly in China and India, but also in Pakistan, Bangladesh, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Nine out of 23 cities with populations of more than 10 million people are in Asia. Similarly, Asia will have many cities projected to have more than a million people each. This is reflected in poor housing, urban infrastructural support, and social and reproductive health services. It could be concluded that the number of children of respondents. Out of the 100 respondents, the highest of 62 respondents have male children and 25 respondents have studied with 112 female child. The status of children range value is found that 49 between 13 and 62. So the 13 respondents are not having any children. No child is one of the drawbacks of in the study area. It is found from the results that 38 of the respondents living in concrete house. The 32 of the respondents are living in Tiled house. The 15 of the respondents were living asbestos house. From the analysis, it is concluded that the similar of 15 of the respondents living in asbestos sheets/any other houses. They must be given the highest priority in all new urban development and urban renewal schemes. This must include a substantial increase in investments in infrastructure, in household connections and in slum targeting Building decision making processes that include representatives from poor communities and wider stakeholders to brokerpro-poor investments and scale up urban water supply and sanitation programs in slums. Urban development and water and sanitation specialists must identify and adopt the political, institutional and policy changes that bring about pro-poor field practices and accelerated slum improvements.
The understanding of the level of urbanization or its scale in developing countries is challenged by differences in the definition of Burban and in turn, the lack of reliable data. Furthermore, the process of urbanization is far from homogenous across regions and swathes of territory that are wholly different in terms of economy and political structures. In many of the poorest countries, there are cities that are really urban or metropolitan regions in terms of population sizes and territorial extent.
Where local governments are in place, they invariably lack the financial and expert capacity to carry out the work needed to address urban problems. Similar constraints are faced by numerous nongovernment organizations which work at the local scale among poor neighborhoods in cities.
Consequently, there is a problem of representation of the local needs in particularly poor urban neighborhoods and it can be assumed that areas like the squatter and slum settlements often have little or no legal claims on city or national governments. The urban population in the world is rising generally.
The estimates are that more than 60% of the increase in the world’s urban population over the next three decades will be in Asia, mostly in China and India, but also in Pakistan, Bangladesh, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Nine out of 23 cities with populations of more than 10 million people are in Asia. Similarly, Asia will have many cities projected to have more than a million people each. This is reflected in poor housing, urban infrastructural support, and social and reproductive health services.The relation between demography and housing need has always been evident with housing policy makers. Housing need also depends on population size and household composition.
The 2011 Census of India reveals that out of total 1210 million the urban population of the country stood at 377.1 million or 31.16 per cent of the total population. It is projected that the urban population would grow to about 470 million in 2021 and 700 million in 2041.
In the developed world, more than 50% of the total population live in the urban area and in the developing countries about 30% of the total population live in the urban areas. In India, as per 2011 census, 31% live in urban areas and 69%live in rural areas. The trend shows that the numbers of persons living in urban areas are continuously growing in a faster rate than the population in the rural area. The ongoing world trend shows that by 2050 the number of persons living in urban areas will cross more than 50% of the total population of the world. This increase in population in the urban areas enormously increases the requirement of providing basic amenities like drinking water, sanitation, housing, electricity and other infrastructure.
As per Census 2011 total number of households was 246.69million in India. The number of rural households was 167.83 million (68%), while urban households were 78.86 million (32 percent) as against out of 191.96 million total number of households, Rural households was 138.27 million and urban households were 53.69 million (28.0 percent) in Census 2001 (see table) As per population census, the following table (2) clearly shows that the rural and urban distribution In India. Rural and urban distribution registered between 238.4 and 1210 in the year of 1901 and 2011. While analyzing, the urban progress was increasing level (0.11 to 0.31) when comparing to rural progress.
A. Urbanisation in India
Urbanisation has advanced at a rapid pace over the last two centuries. In 1800, only about 2 percent of the human population lived in urban areas. By 1900, about 15 percent were living in cities. In 2003 the United Nations Human Settlement Programme estimated (UNHSP,2003) that for the first time in history the number of people living in urban areas had surpassed the number of those living in ruralareas and predicted that by 2030 about two-thirds of the human population would be living in cities. Much of this growth is takingplace in the so-called developing countries. Though the growth rate of urban population is not very high in countries like China and India, the absolute numbers are mind-boggling. India today has the second largest urban population in the world.
B. Urban Policy in India
This section focuses on an analysis of urban policy at the national level. It should be remembered however that urban development, housing, urban policy and urban planning in India are state subjects under the Constitution and therefore without a thoroughgoing analysis of urban development policies in different states it is not possible to paint a comprehensive picture of urban policy in India. The Centre can, at the most, “issue directives, provide advisory services, set up model legislation and fund programmes which the states can follow at will” (Shaw: 1996). However it is beyond the scope of this monograph to study urban policy at the state level. Furthermore, as Ramchandran (1989) points out, despite the fact that states have been empowered to make urban policy, they have rarely done so. Thus the urban policy existing in the states is largely an off shoot of that outlined in the national five years plans and other policies and programs of the central government.
India shares most characteristic features of urbanization as in the developing countries. Number of urban agglomeration /town in India has grown from 1827 in 1901 to 5161 in 2001and further to 7935 in 2011. Out of the total 7935 towns in 2011, 4041 are statutory towns with urban local bodies and 3894 are census towns.
The number of total population has increased from 23.84 crore in 1901 to 121.02 crore in 2011 whereas percentage of population residing in urban areas has increased from 10.84 in 1901 to 31.16 in 2011.At present seven urban agglomerations of Assam –Guwahati, Silchar, Dibrugarh, Jorhat, Nagaon, Tinsukia, and Tezpur have more than one lakh population. However, barring Guwahati being the Capital City, growth of remaining urban agglomerations are sluggish. Guwahati is growing primarily due to migration from infrastructure deficient areas.
Although a good number of new small and medium towns were added in Assam in every decadal Census, the rate of urbanization stepped at a slow pace. While the rate of urbanization in India stood at 17.29 percent in1951 and subsequently increased to 31.16 percent, urbanization in Assam grew at 4.29 percent in 1951 and further reached to 14.08 percent in 2011.
C. Urbanization and Growth Trends in Tamil Nadu
The proportion of urban population to total population of the State had steadily increased from 24.4 percent in 1951. With theintroduction of 74th Constitutional Amendment Act in 1994, all the Town Panchayats were brought under urban fold. As a result, there was a significant rise in the proportion of urban population to 44.0 percent in 2001. In 2011, it had further moved up to 48.5 percent.
As per Census 2011, urbanization rate in 17 districts is below the State average (48.5%). Among these districts, Ariyalur, Villupuram, Dharmapuri, Pudukkottai, Thiruvannamalai, Thiruvarur, Krishnagiri and Nagapattinam are the least urbanized ones. Urbanization was higher than the State’s average in the remaining 15 districts. Among them, Chennai, Kanniyakumari, Coimbatore, Thiruvallur, Kancheepuram, Tiruppur and Madurai are highly urbanized districts.
Tamil Nadu accounted for 9.3percent of the total urban population in the country. The proportion of urban population in the State at 48.5 percent as per 2011Census was significantly higher than that of all India (31.2%). Among the major States, Tamil Nadu ranks first in the proportion of urban population in the country. Other States which surpass the 40 percent markare Kerala (47.7%), Maharashtra (45.2%)and Gujarat (42.6%). The overall literacy rate for urban areas of Tamil Nadu in 2011 Census was 87.0 percent while for all India it was 84.1 percent. The proportion of Schedule Caste population in urban areas stood at 14.2 percent in TamilNadu against 12.6 percent at the National level, whereas the proportion of Schedule Tribe population stood at 0.4 percent and 2.8 percent respectively.
II. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
III. SLUMS DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA AND TAMIL NADU
The word “slum” is often used to describe informal settlements within cities that have inadequate housing and miserable living conditions. They are often overcrowded, with many people crammed into very small living spaces. Slums are not a new phenomenon. They have been a part of the history of almost all cities, particularly during the phase of urbanisation and industrialisation. Slums are generally the only type of settlement affordable and accessible to the poor in cities, competition for land and profits is intense. The main reason for slum proliferation is rapid and non inclusive patterns of urbanisation catalyzed by increasing rural migration to urban areas. Slums are illegal urban settlements on public land and usually grow over a period of time and surround the city from all sides. Slums are more prevalent in the metros, but are slowly coming up in other cities and towns of India also. Slums breed various types of anti social activities, create environmental problems and, more often than not, are havens for criminals. In countries like India, where over population is a major hindrance to growth, slums crop up in the vicinity of urban settlements within days. It is a vicious circle of rural poverty leading to migration in cities in search of job, non-availability of respectable full time employment hence poverty leading to these migrants building temporary shelter for themselves and later many of them following and using the vacant public space for building shanties and settling down. This further perpetuates poverty.
In India most of the metros and other industrial and, of late, typically service towns and cities have slums around or at any other location within the city. The civic authorities ignore them, normally at the behest of local politicians, and later there is no stopping the growth of other slum related problems in the cities like crime, environmental degradation and excessive pressure on civic amenities. The cities of India are expected to be the engines of growth but their overall development depends on the quality of life in the urban areas. Therefore it is imperative to understand the dynamics of urban slums which act as a pressure on urban infrastructure and reduce its availability for those living in legal urban areas.
A. Public Policy on Slums in India
After Independence in 1947 and the partition of the country, the Government of India took upon itself the task of rehabilitation of the migrants from Pakistan. Later as a part of the overall process of planning in India, various sections of the society have, from time to time, been taken care of in terms of special programmes for industrial workers, farm labour, slum dwellers, and other weaker sections of the society as well as housing schemes for them. Land and housing being a state subject, the central government has been a facilitator by way of providing financial assistance and administrative/legal framework for improving the living conditions in the slums. The central government has also been channelising funds received from international agencies to the states. There have been a number of poverty alleviation and employment generation programmes for rural as well as urban poor, but some policies/programmes are framed specifically for urban slum dwellers.
National Slum Development Programme was launched in 1996 for improving the living conditions of the slum dwellers in the cities/towns. Under the programme funds in the form of Additional Central Assistance were released by the Planning Commission to the states/union territories on an annual basis according to the slum population. The basic objective of the Scheme is to strive for holisticslum development with a healthy and enabling urban environment by providing adequate shelter and basic infrastructure facilities to the slum dwellers of the identified urban areas. Allocation of funds among states is on thebasis of the states’ urban slum population to total urban slum population in the country. The Ministry of Housing & Poverty Alleviation is the apex authority of Government of India at the national level toformulate policies, sponsor and support programmes, coordinate the activities of various Central Ministries, State Governments and other nodal agencies implementing the programme concerning all the issues of urban employment, poverty and housing in the country. MHUPA has issued revised guidelines in 2009 for the review and implementation of IHSDP and BSUP for slum dwellers.
B. Slums as a Measure of Urban Growth
The slum question is not marginal to urban development – it is at its very heart. Urban growth takes place primarily in developing countries in which populations move from rural to urban regions at a very fast pace. According to UN-HABITAT(2003), ‘some 923,986,000 people, or 32% of the world’s total urban population, live in slums; some 43% of the urban population of all developing regions combined live in slums; some 78% of the urban population in the least developed countries live in slums; some 6% of the urban population in developed regions live in slum-like conditions’. The total number of slum dwellers in the world increased by about 36per cent during the 1990s, and in the next 30 years the global number of slumdwellers will increase to about two billion if no concerted action to address the challenge of slums is taken.
In both territorial and demographic terms, the world is becoming more and more urban. This process now affects above all the developing countries in Asia and Africa, and Latin America to a somewhat lesser degree (where the level of urbanization is already exceedingly high). The rate of urban growth in many countries in the South continues to be high, and invariably leads to a serious degradation of living conditions for the majority of city dwellers. The figures quoted in the UN study speak for them: depending on the level of poverty in each country, between two and four city dwellers out of five live in slums, with significant consequences for their own lives and the lives of coming generations: precarious conditions for them, uncertainty for their offspring. Worldwide, there were 12 such cities in 1900, 83 in 1950, and 411 in 2000.Nevertheless, in 2003 the United Nations Population Division confirmed that a majority of the current three billion city dwellers – who will become five billion by2030 – still live in small or medium-sized urban agglomerations. In the developing countries, 16 per cent of the populations live in a megalopolis of over five million inhabitants, 24 per cent in a metropolis of one to five million, 9.4 per cent in an agglomeration of 500,000 to one million inhabitants, and 50.5 per cent in cities of less than 500,000 inhabitants (United Nations, Population Division, 2003).Confronted with this demographic and territorial revolution, urban decisionmakers are often placed in a very difficult, if not impossible, situation. Sometimes this is due to a lack of political will, but more often it is the result of lack of financial resources.
C. Slums and Sustainable Urban Development in the Age of Globalization
As we documented earlier, the urbanisation of the world is not a new phenomenon; infect it is a long-term process that has transformed our societies over the centuries. People congregated in towns and cities, took up increasingly diverse economic activities, and there was a shift from agriculture and husbandry to crafts, trades and industry. Historically speaking, these social and economic changes implied the consolidation of human activities in ever more concentrated human settlements, which facilitated production, trade and other forms of exchange between individuals. Improved communication technology is paving the way for a new spatial distribution of individuals – connected ‘virtually’, but sometimes physically remote. The city and its current mutant forms such as urban agglomerations, metropolization, and metapolization (Ascher, 1995, 2000) was and is at the heart of the restructuring of human societies. The role of urban centers changes throughout history and also varies according to the continent but their central position remains. The conditions for their sustainable development cannot be determined uniquely by internal contingencies. Cities and their inhabitant’s depend heavily on external resources energy, natural resources, food, labour. On the other hand, the economic and social activities of their residents generate impacts that go well beyond their spatial and demographic boundaries. Only by analysing the interaction between the city, regional, national and international development will itbe possible to design a ‘sustainable coherent development strategy.
Due to the combination of a lack of access to credit and precarious personal circumstances, many urban households are forced to seek alternative forms of credit which are socially and financially burdensome (e.g. usury, pawn broking, mafia sources). This inadequacy of the banking system to serve clients who are numerous but have low income generates very heavy indirect costs for the whole of society by encouraging illegal landownership and construction, the spread of anarchic patterns of land use, and the use of low-quality building materials. Alternative solutions for the construction and financing of subsidized housing for the poor do exist. These have been tested in various cities in the world; they all revolve around a few key innovations: micro-credits, family and community guarantees. Like the other institutional change described above, they aim to adapt the financial system to the needs of the inhabitants rather than the other way around. If policy was reoriented in this way, it could truly contribute to tackling the main urban dysfunctions observed earlier, and help fulfill the Millennium Development Agenda (UN, 2000): to contribute to the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger by reducing the proportion of people whose income is less than US$1 per day by half by 2015; by reducing the number of people without access to healthy drinking water by 50 per cent by 2015; and to significantly improving living conditions for at least100 million slum dwellers by 2020.
IV. SLUM POPULATION IN TAMIL NADU
Most of the slums are situated invulnerable locations like river margins, water logged areas, road margins etc. Slums are a hot bed of commission of crimes, squalid housing conditions, dearth of basic amenities like education, health care, safe drinking water, roads and communication, lack of employment opportunities and featured by absence of rationality in cognition. The growth of slums is due to the concentration of low-profile economic activities and emergence of informal sector in urban areas, coupled with rural-to-urban migration. The informal sector attracts casual labour and petty traders from rural areas whose productivities are relatively low. The socio-economic conditions of people coming under informal sector are deplorable causing increase in slum population with least basic amenities.
According to 2011 Census, of the total urban households numbering 8.93 millions in the State, millions (16.3%) were located in slums. Tamil Naduaccounted for 11.0 percent of the total slum households at all India. There was a steady increase in the total population of the State. The increase was from 2.7 million in 1981 to 5.8 million in 2011. Tamil Nadu’s share in total slum population in all India was 9.0 percent. Of them 44percent were in notified slums, 34 percent in recognized slums and 22 percent in identified slums. The corresponding ratios at all India were 34percent, 31 percent and 35 percent. The proportion of slum population to urban population inthe State was 16.6 percent.
Of the total 1.5million slum households in Tamil Nadu, 69 percent were in good condition whereas the proportion at the all India was lower at58 percent. About 67percent of the slum households had received drinking water from treated source whereas the ratios at all India lower at 65.0percent. The proportion of household having the access of toilet facility was lower at Tamil Nadu (61.0%) as compared to all India (65.0%). The proportion of slum households using firewood was higher at all India (26.0%) than in Tamil Nadu (24.0%). The Government is trying to make urban areas slum-free by undertaking the work of constructing 92,272 tenements at a cost of Rs.2,339 crore in Chennai, Madurai and Coimbatore under Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM). Construction of 37,715 housing units and 2,233 infrastructure works were taken up at a total cost of Rs.566 crores during the period 2005-12. Of which 31,343 (83%) housing units and 2,112 (95%) infrastructure works were completed and remaining works were in progress.
V. PROFILE OF THE STUDY AREA
In 2011, Erode had population of 2,251,744 of which male and female were 1,129,868 and 1,121,876 respectively. In 2001 census, Erode had a population of 2,016,582 of which males were 1,024,732 and remaining 991,850 were females. Erode District population constituted 3.12 percent of total Maharashtra population. In 2001 census, this figure for Erode District was at 3.23 percent. There was change of 11.66 percent in the population compared to population as per 2001. In the previous census of India 2001, Erode District recorded increase of 11.85 percent to its population compared to 1991.
Average literacy rate of Erode in 2011 were 72.58 compared to 65.44 of 2001. If things are looked out at gender wise, male and female literacy were 80.42 and 64.71 respectively. For 2001 census, same figures stood at 75.04 and 55.56 in Erode District. Total literate in Erode District were 1,492,662 of which male and female were 828,300 and 664,362 respectively. In 2001, Erode District had 1,188,228 in its district. Child population (0-6) in urban region was 102,959 of which males and females were 52,553 and 50,406. This child population figure of Erode district is 9.10 % of total urban population. Average literacy rate in Erode district as per census 2011 is 79.39 % of which males and females are 86.17 % and 72.68 % literates respectively. In actual number 837,616 people are literate in urban region of which males and females are 452,326 and 385,290 respectively. The following table very closely shows the municipality-wise number of notified slums in Tamil Nadu during Ninth five year plan.
VI. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
In this chapter provide the data analysis and interpretation of the present study. For the purpose of this study, the study on urbanization and slum development with special reference to Erode district of Tamil Nadu during the study period.
Age wise classification of sample respondents are shown in table 4.1 and it is found that in the respondent’s category the highest 32 are in the age group of 40-50 years and the least groups 8 are in the age groups of above 60 years. It is found that the mean age of respondents is 17 in the sample.
The sample consist 94 respondents belongs to Hindu religions, 3 belongs to Christians religions and 3 respondents belongs to Muslims religion. It is found from the analysis the highest 94 respondents belongs to Hindu religions in slum area in the study area.
It is highlighted from the above table that the highest of 63 number of respondents are belongs to SC/ST category of community group and the lowest group 2 respondents were the group of other cost. It could be observed that the high levels of (63) SC/ST people are living in slum area in the study period.
It is noted that 23 respondents are having literate group. The mean value of education is 33 and 38 has std. deviation in the educational list.
It is noted from the above table (16) that the number of respondent’s occupational status in the study area during the study period. The sample consists of the maximum of 85 respondents are working under labour category and the minimum level of 5 respondents were government employee and 10 respondents were private employee. The average of occupational category is 33 and the 33 of standard deviation value in occupational status of Erode town. The above table (17) exhibit that the monthly income of respondents of various levels. The highest of 27 respondents earn a monthly income of Rs. 4000 to 5000 and the least of 5 respondents earn a monthly income of above Rs. 10000. The mean value of average is 13 and the 8 is standard deviation value of income status in the study area during the study period. The range value is 22 between 22 and 5.
The above table shows that the number of children of respondents. Out of the 100 respondents, the highest of 62 respondents have male children and 25 respondents have studied with 112 female child. The status of children range value is found that 49 between 13 and 62. So the 13 respondents are not having any children. No child is one of the drawbacks of in the study area.
The present study analyzes the type of house where the selected sample slum people are living. For this purpose, four main types of houses were selected viz., Thatched houses, Tiled houses, Asbestos Sheet houses and Concrete houses. Samples were employed and the results are furnished in the above table. It is found from the above table that 38 of the respondents living in concrete house. The 32 of the respondents are living in Tiled house.
The lowest of 10 respondents are having no own land with living conditions. The mean value of nature of house is studied that 33 and the standard deviation of nature of house is 35 ie. Nature house’s range value is between 63 and 10.
The migration of 23 respondents noticed in the year of 2000 to 2010. The range value of migration is 27 in the study area during the study period.
It is noted that 7 respondents are having reason for migration with near of work place. And the 8 respondents were migrated with employment reason of migration in the study area. It is also noted that the range value of 81 is reason for migration between 81 and 2. It could be learned from the above results that 83 respondents are living with own land in the study area.
It is highlighted from the above analysis that 59 of the respondents are living with satisfaction level and 41 respondents who are living with no satisfaction about status living conditions in the study area. The range value was studied and found that 18 between the value of 41 and 18.
It is also learned from the study that the least of 14 respondents have not said that no pollution in their study area. On the other hand, 60 respondents have no employment problems on opinion about employment opportunity in the study area.
It could be observed that most of ie. 73 respondents’ complaints that government is not giving favor support like road, house, sewage, health and also some basic facilities. So it should be focused by government or non government.
The above table understood that the opinion about social response in the study area during the study period. It is learnt from the above results 80 respondents are having no social response in their study area and least of 20 respondents were identified with no category of social response in the study area. Hence, it is suggested that the equal responsibility should be followed.
To improve health and well-being in the slums, we need to have interventions that reduce urban poverty in the broadest sense and improve the deficiencies associated with slums. There is an urgent need for health assessment and characterization of social-cluster determinants of health in urban slums; it is essential to adopt a long-term multi sectorial approach to address the social determinants of health in urban settings. The increasing population of cities should prompt authorities to make family planning services universally available. Critical areas of environmental management include waste management, pollution control, traffic, transportation, energy, economic development, and job creation. Society must be able to participate in setting priorities. Further actions must include: Water and sanitation services are recognized and acted upon as the single development intervention that brings the greatest public health returns and environmental benefits in urban development. They must be given the highest priority in all new urban development and urban renewal schemes. This must include a substantial increase in investments in infrastructure, in household connections and in slum targeting Building decision making processes that include representatives from poor communities and wider stakeholders to broker pro-poor investments and scale up urban water supply and sanitation programs in slums. Urban development and water and sanitation specialists must identify and adopt the political, institutional and policy changes that bring about pro-poor field practices and accelerated slum improvements.
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