Authors: Arnab Purkaystha, Ashmit Singh, Subhodip Sinha Choudhury, Dr. S. D. Lokhande, Dr. S. S. Lokhande
Certificate: View Certificate
The global road safety annual report estimates that 1.24 million individuals worldwide pass away every year in traffic-related incidents. In addition to the death toll listed above, about 50 million people suffer catastrophic injuries that have a lasting impact on their lives. The proposed system will take in the distance measured by the ultrasonic sensors as an input and vary the speed of the vehicle accordingly which will slow down the vehicle and prevent a collision. We also have the implementation of Automatic-headlights which further reduces the chances of human error by automatically turning on the headlights. We are also adding a luxury component by providing automatic seat adjustment to the driver. In this driver seat will be automatically adjusted based on the preference of the driver.
India has the most traffic collisions worldwide, according to the world accident report. Road accidents have given India a questionable reputation. With more than 130,000 fatalities each year, the nation has surpassed China to hold the record for the highest number of road traffic fatalities worldwide.4, 40,042 traffic incidents resulted in 1, 39,091 fatalities in the nation last year. With 16,175 fatalities in 67,757 incidents, Tamil Nadu tops the list, followed by Uttar Pradesh with 15,109 fatalities in 24,478 accidents. With 14,966 fatalities in 39,344 accidents, Andhra Pradesh comes in third and Maharashtra fourth with 13,936 deaths in 45,247 accidents.
The Capital city of Delhi accounts for about 1,866 deaths in 6,937 accidents Annual Road accident rates in India were respectively 15.4%, 10.3%, and 10.1% in the states of Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, and Andhra Pradesh. Now a days, many a times some obstacle comes in front of the vehicle and the driver doesn’t get enough reaction time. So, we are developing a project in which the speed of car automatically decreases on detection of any obstacle that comes in front the vehicle. This will help in prevention of accidents to a large extent.
We are also adding a luxury component by providing automatic seat adjustment to the driver. In this driver seat will be automatically adjusted based on the preference of the driver. Also, we will add the feature of automatic headlights by using LDR sensor. In this the headlights of the vehicle will automatically turn on sensing dip of adequate environment light. Thus, our project will help in prevention of accidents as well as provide features and assistance to the driver by providing automatic seat adjustment as well as automatic headlamps.
II. LITERATURE SURVEY
III. RELATED WORK
In  author investigates the compatibility of cars, light trucks, and vans (LTVs) involved in traffic crashes. According to these statistics, LTVs and passenger cars are incompatible in traffic accidents, and LTVs are the more aggressive of the two-vehicle classes. This gives us a better understanding of the scenario.  touches upon the problems related to visibility that occur on road due to approaching vehicles and dim lit areas which hinder the visibility of the driver resulting in accidents. This was the idea behind the automatic headlights that can change intensity of the light according to the vehicle's surroundings.  deals with the Automatic emergency braking (AEB) and forward collision warning (FCW) that have the potential to avoid or lessen many collisions. This played a major role in developing the automatic braking and speed reduction mechanism of the vehicle.  deals with the role of seating in vehicles where it was observed that the type of seat and the comfort actually plays a large role in the amount of fatigue accumulated by the driver. These factors led to the conclusion of developing better viewing angles for the driver with the goal of providing better viewing angles and better visibility.
Accident Prevention systems consist of both hardware and software components, to prevent road accidents. Additional features such as automatic headlight on and off and automatic seat adjustment can also improve safety and comfort for drivers and passengers.
A. Block Diagram
To prevent accidents, ultrasonic sensors are utilised to identify probable collisions. High-frequency sound waves are emitted by these sensors, which then time how long it takes for the waves to return after hitting nearby objects. To calculate the size and placement of items in the environment, this data will be employed.
An Arduino Nano microcontroller is used to process the ultrasonic sensors' data. The data are analysed, and potential accidents based on specified criteria are identified using integrated C programming on the Arduino.
The Arduino will decide how to prevent the mishap after analysing the data and identifying a probable accident. If an impediment is present at less than thirty centimetres, the vehicle will slow down, and if the obstacle is present at less than ten centimetres, the vehicle will come to a halt.
Now that we have added the Light Dependent Resistor sensor, the vehicle's lighting intensity will be adjusted automatically based on the amount of ambient light. This will aid in giving the oncoming car more visibility. We also have a seat inclination system where servo motors are used to change the angle of the seat. Three switches on our system will be fixed with the predetermined seat angle. The user only needs to push the desired inclination; the seat's inclination will then alter accordingly.
B. Hardware Requirements
Title must be in 24 pt Regular font. Author name must be in 11 pt Regular font. Author affiliation must be in 10 pt Italic. Email address must be in 9 pt Courier Regular font.
A detailed description of the components are given below.
The project is developed utilizing a variety of tools and applications. The project uses an ultrasonic sensor, servo motor, DC motor, and Arduino nano. In this process main issue, we are trying to solve is the prevention of vehicle collisions that may occur due to human error (misjudgement of distance, poor visibility due to bad lighting conditions, not having a clear view of the road while driving). The driver seat will be automatically adjusted based on the preference of the driver due to the automatic seat adjustment feature provided. The headlights of the vehicle will automatically turn on sensing a dip in ambient light due to the automatic headlights.
Thus, our project will help in prevention of accidents as well as provide features and assistance to the driver while on road.
The heading of the Acknowledgment section and the References section must not be numbered. We express our heartfelt appreciation to Dr. S.D. Lokhande for his invaluable support and guidance throughout the project, the principal of our college, and Dr. M.B. Mali, the Head of the Department of Electronics and Telecommunication for granting us permission to undertake this project and providing us with unrestricted access to the laboratory facilities. We also wish to express our heartfelt appreciation to our project guide, Dr. S.D. Lokhande and Dr. S.S Lokhande, for dedicating time and effort to support us throughout the project. Additionally, we extend our thanks to the Entc Department staff for their assistance. Lastly, we would like to thank our fellow classmates for their unwavering support and encouragement throughout the project.
This project works on vehicle crash prevention by means of reducing the speed of the vehicle if an obstacle comes in front of the vehicle. The proposed system also helps the driver by adjusting the driver seat. This in turn, provides them with the best possible viewing angles for a stress-free experience while driving leading to lesser road accidents. We will also use this system to automatically turn on and adjust the intensity of the headlamps of the vehicle so that the driver has no obstruction.
 Gabler, H. C., & Hollowell, W. T. (2000). The crash compatibility of cars and light trucks. Journal of Crash Prevention and Injury Control, 2(1), 19-31.  Lakshmi K, Nevetha R, Ilakkiya S N, Ganesan R (2019). Automatic Vehicle Headlight Management System to Prevent Accidents Due to Headlight Glare. International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE) Volume-8 Issue-9.  Joshi, R., & Banginwar, S. (2020). Height adjustment in school bus seat to improve comfort of children with different age group. SAE Technical Paper Series.  Teoh, E. R. (2021). Effectiveness of front crash prevention systems in reducing large truck real world crash rates. Traffic Injury Prevention, 22(4), 284-289.
Copyright © 2023 Arnab Purkaystha, Ashmit Singh, Subhodip Sinha Choudhury, Dr. S. D. Lokhande, Dr. S. S. Lokhande. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.