Authors: Mr. Debabrata Roy
Certificate: View Certificate
It is often seen that a lot of water is wasted from the water pipes, constructed by the municipality at the street corners. In some cases, this is due to the unawareness of people, not turning off the water tap, or an internal dis- turbance in the tap. The above factors motivate us to develop a solution so that water wastage can be reduced which helps to save the drinking water in this country. The main purpose of this project is to first find out if there is a container or bucket below the water tap for getting water. If there is no such thing and the water tap is open for no reason, then it will send a notification to the mobile number of the ward counselor or owner of the water tap so that she/he can take some immediate steps. Whenever that kind of situation occurs, the module will also broadcast an audio message., so that anyone who passes by in front of the water tap can also take some immediate actions. Also, if someone tries to steal it, the module will also warn the ward counselor by sending an Alert SMS.
It is certain that with the rise of global warming, there will be an acute shortage of drinking water in the world. As the days go by, people become more and more unaware of the shortage of drinking water. There is going to be a time on earth when we will all cry out for a drop of drinking water. And maybe that’s when we’ll realize the importance of a drop of water being wasted. If such kind of unaware people is constantly wasting water without any reason, then that day is yet to come.
A. Deal with Real World
It is often seen that a lot of water is being wasted without any reason from the water taps installed at the corners of the roads. There are some places in the world where people stand in long lines in front of a well for hours to get a drop of drinking water. If a little water is wasted in this way from every water tap every day, then the day will come when there will be a massive crisis of drinking water. For this reason, world greening will be disrupted and world warming will also increase. Through this project, we try to develop a water-saving module that will play a significant role in raising awareness among the people about water wastage.
For making a suitable solution for the problem of water wastage, we have to develop one module that will be placed under the water tap first. Now, if there is no container for taking water under the water tap, then the module will operate the servo motor. The water level sensor on the servo motor is to determine if any water is being wasted from that tap. If so, the message will be sent to the counselor’s phone immediately and at the same time, the audio message will inform the people in the vicinity that water is being wasted through this tube.
Nowadays, water is wasted everywhere such as various the road- side water taps or restaurants, or factories. It is not always possible that there will be a person who will monitor roadside water tap in any bad weather & take any action or report to the ward counselor if any water is being wasted from there.
The development of the autonomous module “Tweety” may be used to reduce these kinds of problems. If there is any wastage of water, it immediately sends an alert message to the ward counselor and informs the people around the water tap so that they too can take some immediate action.
The project work will be helpful by determining the wastage of water from any water tap and informing its owner about it. The module can contribute an important role to minimize wa- ter wastage in different places. It can have different function- alities inside it to provide all necessary information and check that if someone tries to steal it, warn the owner by sending an alert.
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
There exist very few works related to that topic which is the subject of the project. This section describes briefly the previous works likely similar to the project. The idea of the project is mainly based on the following models described in the following sections.
A. Smart Water Management System
A smart water management system is an essential module that becomes very much useful in the current situation. Solar energy is the best green energy production in India. Solar powered agri- cultural pumps are available in the market today. The problem is the meaningful usage of solar energy, water, and storage. So batteries need to conserve solar energy and water quality and level indicator techniques are used to effectively manage the wa- ter system.
According to the quality of water, pure water is used for household purposes and unclean water for agricultural purposes. The level indicator warns the user about the water level in under- ground and overhead tanks. The solar-powered water pump acts like an autonomous system that automatically switches on/off according to the water level in the tank.
Dirty water is sprayed on the soil according to the level of water humidity and temperature. All of these techniques are controlled by using an Arduino board. It will send notifications to the user using the controller. Users can save energy and water by sensing and analyzing data through mobile applications.
B. Water Quality Monitoring System
Water is an important element for the survival of mankind. Its various uses mean that it is always in a constant state of demand. The Water supply comes mainly from large reservoirs such as streams, lakes, and oceans. As such, it is a good practice to monitor its quality to make sure it is suitable for human use.
Current water quality monitoring has often done in tradi- tional labs but it is a time-consuming and risky process. The main focus of the paper is to analyze the feasibility to implement an Arduino-based system for monitoring water quality levels.
A common prototype consisting of a microcontroller and mul- tiple connected sensors was employed to conduct weekly onsite experiments at multiple daily intervals. It has been found that the system works reliably but it is dependent on human assis- tance and has a tendency for data errors. However, the sys- tem provides a solid foundation for future expansion work of the same department to upgrade the system to be Internet of Things (IoT) friendly.
III. ARDUINO UNO TECHNOLOGY
Arduino is an open-source electronics platform based on the HW & SW. Arduino boards can read inputs like a finger on a button, light on a sensor & turn it into an output like turning on an LED, activating a motor. By sending some instructions to the board, it can be possible to achieve a specific goal for which reasons the circuit is designed. The work has been done with the help of the Arduino programming language & the Arduino Software, based on a process.
Arduino acts like a CPU for mil- lions of projects, various complex scientific gadgets, and versatile IoT projects. A vast community of mak- ers has gathered around that plat- form. Their contributions include a vast amount of knowledge that can help novices and experts both.
The Arduino platform is very popular with people who have just started with an electronic device or project. No separate Arduino piece h/w is required to load a new code on board using a USB cable. The Arduino IDE uses a very simple version of C++, which makes it easier to communicate with various sensors Arduino boards. It also helps to interact with the board by using our basic program- ming language.
A. Board Components
Most of these ingredients are similar to Arduino. They are de- scribed as
Arduino UNO supports various sensors that are applicable in various robotic projects. The name of the sensors are as follow,
C. Applications in Water related Projects
It’s already used in various autonomous water related projects i.e.
D. Limitation of Arduino Board
IV. ESP32-CAM MODULE
The ESP32-CAM is a low-cost ESP32-based development board that has a camera attached to that board itself & small in size. It is the best solution for multiple Scientific Projects, various IoT applications, DIY projects, and Gadgets prototype building.
A. Board Components & Usages
The board combines WiFi, traditional Bluetooth and low power BLE, 2 high performance 32-bit LX6 CPUs. It is mainly based on a 7-stage pipeline architecture, on-chip sensor, hall sensor, temperature sensor, and much more and its main frequency adjustment ranges from 80MHz to 240MHz. Fully compatible with Bluetooth 4.2 & WiFi 802.11 standards, It can be applied as a master mode which helps to create an independent net- work controller or a slave to other hosts’ MCUs that are attached to the existing devices.
ESP32-CAM can widely be used in various IoT applications. It is suitable for smart home devices, wireless monitoring sys- tems, industrial wireless control devices, QR wireless positioning system signals, wireless identification tools, and other IoT appli- cations. This is an ideal solution for all types of IoT application.
B. Applications in Robotics
It’s already used in various robotic and autonomous module design-related projects i.e.
C. Limitation of ESP32-CAM Board
V. WATER SAVING TWEETY: BASIC ARCHITECTURE
The main purpose is to design a module that will be able to reduce water wastage by sending an alert message to the regis- tered mobile number. It also alerts the surrounding people that they can take some immediate action if such kind of wastage is noticed.
A. Existing Module
The project work is based on the normal Object Recognition Module with some extensions i.e. by adding some special features, with the help of esp32-cam, to make it usable for real-life application purposes.
On that model, add some extension such as -
a. Night Detection Module to capture images at night with the help of led light.
b. Security Module to detect any kind of stealing.
c. Sound Module to broadcasting the alert message.
B. Structure & Components
a. Thick Plastic Box
b. Arduino UNO Board (2 pcs)
c. ESP32-Cam Module
d. Water Level Depth Detection Sensor
e. Servo Motor
f. LDR Light Sensor Module
g. KY-036 Metal Touch Sensor
h. TTP223 Capacitive Touch Sensor
i. TIP 122 Transistor Speaker
j. Battery Snap with DC Jack
k. Jumper Wires
5. Prototype Structure Design: The structure is the 1st initial model of the Water Saving Tweety, which is based on a normal human face detection module to unlock a door. The designing of the module is done by using one thick plastic box & cut it according to the required model. Now place one Arduino board as its CPU inside the box for taking all types of actions & functionality. The servo motor should be placed slightly below the body of the water tap, which will act as the main actuator of the module. The water level sensor must be installed on this servo motor, which can determine the wastage of water.
It is constructed with the help of one Arduino UNO & one ESP32-Cam module. The esp32-cam board helps to make the project flexible & extendable to include various functionality.
3. Final Structure: The final structure is constructed based on the initial model of Water Saving Tweety. Now, it is used in the public area especially below the water tap to detect water wastage & provide the functionality, described earlier.
4. Additional Functionality
a. Night Detection: To create this extension, one need to use an LDR light sensor module inside the plastic box, where the LDR sensor will be facing towards the lighting surface at the top of the box. In order to work properly, need to design the circuit correctly and then connect the jumper wires.
b. Security Module: To create this extension, need to use two different touch sensors, such as the KY- 036 metal touch sensor and the TTP223 capacitive touch sensor, to detect any human touch that is attached to either side of the plastic box. If such activity is detected, send a warning message to the registered mobile.
c. Sound Module: To create this extension, need to use one TP122 transistor & speaker to broadcast the alert message to take some favor from the sur- round people.
The Esp32 cam board achieves all the functionality of the project by exchanging the required information directly with the Arduino of the Water Saving Module. The servo motor simply allows the water level sensor, mounted on it to move in front of or away from the water tap as directed by the Arduino board. A small signal from the main Arduino board is sent to the audio module’s Arduino board, which then determines when to send the sound alert.
VI. BLYNK: MOBILE INTERFACE APP
Blynk is a new platform that lets one quickly create interfaces for controlling and monitoring one’s hardware projects from one’s iOS and Android devices. After downloading the Blynk application to the smartphone, one can be able to create a project dashboard sliders, sort buttons, graphs, and other widgets on the screen. Using the widget, one can turn the PIN on and off or display data from the sensor.
A. Working Process
Blynk is ideal for monitoring one’s fish tank temperature or remotely interfacing with common projects such as turn- ing the lights on and off. Blynk works mostly with the Raspberry Pi models, Arduino boards, ESP8266, particle cores & single-board computers & some common microcontrollers, and many more are being added over time.
Blynk was designed for the various IoT applications. It can remotely control hardware, it can display sensor data, it can store data, it can visualize and many other great things.
B. Architectural Components
There are three major components in the platform:
2. Blynk Server: responsible for all types of communications between mobile and hardware. Blynk Cloud or Blynk server can be used in various projects. It is an open-source server, and can easily handle thousands of devices.
3. Blynk Libraries: It is used for all types of hardware com- munication with the server processes all the incoming and outgoing commands for execution purposes.
C. Connection type with Hardwares
Blynk is to be developed for supporting the following connection types to establish a connection for interfacing hardware with the Blynk Cloud/Blynk’s server:
D. Blynk interface for Water Saving Tweety
At the time of designing the Blynk interface in the mobile app for the project, receive an Authentication Token through the mail for establishing a connection with Blynk Server.
Interface Design Steps
VII. ALGORITHM AND FLOW-CHART DESIGN
The algorithm and flowchart are two types of tools that are used to explain the basic purpose of the program by executing the process one by one. Here the discussion is about the differ- ences between an algorithm and a flowchart and how to create a flowchart to illustrate the algorithm visually i.e. graphical rep- resentation.
These are two different tools that are very useful for creating various new programs. An algorithm is a step-by-step analysis of one process, whereas a flowchart explains the steps of a program graphically with proper direction flow of data from one block to another.
A. Algorithm Design
For designing the entire module, the following algorithms need to develop first which are as follows:
a. Step1: Start
b. Step2: set all the pins as the input/output signals for the sensors.
c. Step3: ESP32-Cam is fed a set of flat surface images and those images are then registered for any kind of flat surface identification.
d. Step4: if it detects any flat surface, then it sends a signal to Arduino board which moves the servo towards the opening of the water tap.
∗ (I). if the water level sensor detects any water wastage from the water tap, then it sends a signal to the ESP32 board.
e. Step 5: End
2. Night Detection & Security Module Algorithm
a. Step 1: Start
b. Step 2: Set all the pins as the input/output signals for the sensors.
c. Step 3: If there is not enough light around or darkness falls at the end of the day, then the LDR sensor sends a signal to the esp32 board.
If the signal, sent by the LDR sensor, is high, then led pin 4 of the esp32 board become brighter.
d. Step 4: If anyone try to steal the whole module for that purpose when he/she will touch it, then any of the two touch sensors which will detect it.
If the sensors detects the touch, it will send a signal to esp32 board which helps to send an alert message to the registered mobile.
e. Step 5: End
3. Sound Module Algorithm
a. Step 1: Start
b. Step 2: Set an audio for purposes of spreading alert message.
c. Step 3: Read the digital pin 12
d. Step 4: If pin 12 is high, then play the VOIALERT message.
e. Step 5: Otherwise, don’t play anything.
f. Step 6: End
Out of these three algorithms, it is not possible to work with- out the algorithm of water-saving tweety. The other two are used for security purposes and the other for alert message broadcast- ing purposes.
a. The main function of the Water Saving Module is to send an alert message to the mobile if it detects any flat surface, as well as any water, that is being wasted from the water tap
b. The Security Module will only be activated when someone tries to steal it. It also alerts by sending the theft warning message to the mobile.
c. The Sound Alert Module will broadcast the alert message only when the water is being wasted from the water tap.
B. Flow Chart Design
Figure 16: Water Saving Tweety Flow Chart
2. Flow Chart of Night Detection & Security Module
3. Flow Chart of Sound Module for Alert
VIII. TESTING AND IMPLEMENTATION
The sub-modules and the entire model have been tested sev- eral times. Firstly, it gave some errors because of coding or sometimes for loose connection. Sometimes object detec- tion & recognition code could not work properly as expected. Now, all the codes are fixed & they are now bug-free to use any module like that. Now, it is working fine & all of its functionality doing well as the requirements.
The autonomous module can also get a good review from the locality, especially from those people who are used to collecting drinking water from the roadside water tap. It makes a deep realization to all of us, that says “Save water, Save Life”
A. Arduino Code Implementation
By designing the circuit of the main water-saving module, when the code is written in Arduino and it is uploaded and runs, some functions were not working properly, such as capturing the object and not being able to detect it, also moving the Servo at the right time, not being able to perceive leakage, etc.
2. Signal Flow Testing: This code is especially used for the purpose of taking care of those sensors, which are connected to the Arduino board di- rectly, to control the Servo & determine the water wastage. By sending the High signal to the ESP32-Cam board, it informs about the water wastage.
3. Sound System Testing: This code is especially used for the purpose of broadcasting alert messages about water wastage. It depends upon the signal, which is coming from the Arduino board after detecting the problem of water wastage.
IX. MODEL ANALYSIS
The entire model can be used in various real-world areas such as any water pipe’s joint leakage, any water wastage from roadside, household & factory water tap. The autonomous module can detect any water wastage by capturing the cur- rent phenomena & then sens- ing any water leaking from the water tap. If so, then it re- ports or sends the alert noti- fication. It also takes care of its security from any kind of stealing.
The water-saving module can be upgraded, by using one solar panel that is facing to- ward the sun-ray, as its main power source, instead of using some battery cells. The module can include one LED mon- itor to display the last timing of water wastage & its frequency and the total number of buck- ets by its observation throughout the day.
The module can be used in various types of projects to reduce or minimize water wastage in different places. It can also detect the human touch for the safety measures of the device. It is designed as a simple, small & sample copy of a futuristic desired model and this concept can be used in the future. It can also be useful at the Educational Institutes’ drinking water taps, Banks’ drinking water opening, Roadside water taps, etc.
 Smart Water Management System using Arduino from www.grdjournals.com  Water Quality Monitoring with Arduino Based Sensors from www.scribd.com  Arduino UNO Board Diagram from www.teachmemicro.com  ”What is an Arduino?” from learn.sparkfun.com  Arduino Board Description from tutorialspoint.com  ESP32-CAM Board Diagram from www.elementzonline.com  ESP32-CAM Board Description from media.digikey.com  Blynk Interfacing Architecture from docs.blynk.cc  Explain Algorithm and Flowchart with Examples from edrawsoft.com  Jack J Purdum, ”Beginning C for Arduino, Second Edition: Learn C Programming for the Arduino”, Apress, June 2015  Charles Platt, ”Learn Arduino Sensor With Projects For Beginners”, Independently published (June 8, 2019)
Copyright © 2022 Mr. Debabrata Roy. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.