Housing is the most required development to build a nation developed. In India most of the population in urban as well as in rural areas still required a better shelters or houses for accommodation with better living environment including with all amenities , social , cultural , healthy , safe , hygienic , spacious , pollution free , climatically comfortable , eco- friendly and affordable houses. The economic weaker section can’t afford the housing cost in present conditions. Government of India support needy people by funds, and also provides subsidized affordable houses by developing many policies and projects in this direction. This paper aims towards the study of effective housing demand , current patterns of development and finding the Innovative Contraction techniques , Materials (local and eco friendly) , Planning and designing methods , to make the solution . With the help of techniques of construction, Planning, and use of local and sustainable material , the Cost effective housing can be developed in less time and in budget .
Large sections of the society are migrating to urban areas for better job opportunities and quality of life from rural areas. These Cities need to provide a receptive, innovative and productive environment, which can promote faster and sustainable growth ensuring a better quality of living. Cost Effective or Low-cost housing is a critical issue in India, as many people cannot afford to buy or rent a home. There are many challenges faced by middle and lower-income groups in attaining home ownership. The use of low-cost construction techniques and local materials is to provide affordable housing solutions in proper way to improve the living of low-income communities in the society. The Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MOHUA) through its flagship mission Pradhan-Mantri-Awas- Yojana – Urban (PMAY-U) ensures a PUCCA HOUSE to all eligible urban households. PMAY-U aims to achieve Urban Development through Transformation, Innovation and Sustainable Inclusions. Due to rapid increase in urbanization and believing it as an opportunity to reduce poverty.
For finding the facts of the topic , the Case study of the Latest Cost effective housing project done with Modern and innovative technique , material and design is done along with some past but very popular project Low cost housing Literature study is done . Analysis of the parameters, purpose, designs, materials , techniques is done and comparative data is prepared .
There area many points and aspects which are considered in study and some findings are as follows :
High rise housing is more effective in cost due to shortage land high cost of urban land.
Modular and precast Construction type is more cost effective than traditional .
In pre cast construction (In site construction) Time , transport can be saved .
In PCC wastage of materials like Steel , Cement can be saved.
In PCC water and other natural resources can be saved .
Less requirement of Shuttering , curing and man power is also in PCC.
Building Life and durability is more in PCC .
Climatic consideration in design for user’s comfort is also considered in PCC.
Good building quality and low cost maintenance is in PCC.
After the study and analysis there are some points which came as a conclusion for the research in low cost housing techniques , that :
1) It is not mandatory that the cost effective housing is bounded with the use of traditional materials , designs , and techniques but new methods can also be effective to make the housing Cost effective for EWS and LIG categories .
2) Use of pre fabricated building elements can make housing cost effective , Time saving , easy to construct , climatically comfortable and user friendly .
3) Pre-casting and storage yard with-in the site campus can save time and travel cost along with the quality control , site testing aspect .
4) The innovative and Modular type construction and designing of such project make the project having less waste generator , Nature friendly .
5) Being pre designed and tested structural elements it more Durable and safe for the project .
6) By use of some innovative materials like PVC wall panels and windows , less requirement of maintenance is in the project.