Authors: Mourya Sirapu
Certificate: View Certificate
Gas leakages are a hazardous threat to living beings present in the vicinity and cause serious health issues when exposed. Employees need to constantly monitor the situation and if any leak occurs he/she needs to make the right decisions which sometimes may be prone to error. A system needs to be created that bypasses human intervention and constantly monitors around the clock. The input to the system is given by a sensor whose sensitivity depends on the gas it needs to detect. The concentration of the gas is directly proportional to the voltage output. On receiving the information, a microcontroller operates an alarm, monitoring system and displays the output with the help of LCD, LEDs. An Internet of Things (IoT) infrastructure is created in such a way that people, who are connected to the same Wi-Fi, will get a message and authorities present outside the organization will get an email via a cloud-based applet wherein officials can monitor using data analytics platform from a safe location via the internet. Officials will be able to monitor all the areas placed with a sensor on a single dashboard. From the dashboard, the data is received by a microcontroller which then initiates the sprinkler system. The microcontroller, present at the leak, operates a solenoid valve thereby directing the sterilizing agent at the site of the leak.
Gas leaks can be attributed to a man-made disaster. Improper design, damage to the material, improper installation and maintenance, lack of handling expertise are some of the ways that lead to gas leaks. Common types of industrial gases include carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, mono oxides of nitrogen. Dust, smoke released from industries causes air pollution. They hinder muscular functioning. Gases like CO2, SO2, and NO2 combine with rainwater creating respective acids. The productivity of the soil is impeded due to acidification. The acidity of water bodies increases which cause the decline in the population of aquatic organism. Acid rain also leads to corrosion of historical monuments. Industrial gases create photochemical smog which causes eye itching and respiratory problems. The smog reduces the transparency of the atmosphere and creates a problem for pilots and planes. A potential leak of any lethal gas may pose a significant threat to living things and the environment. It will have a lasting effect spanning decades and inhibiting serious health issues. Some gases lead to genetic abnormalities. Gas leaks into the atmosphere cause global warming and ozone depletion. Some gases rapidly diffuse with air thereby decreasing countermeasure time. The risks of explosion, fire, suffocation are based on the properties of the gas.
Underground gas leaks lead to land degradation, pollution of underground water making the land uninhabitable for decades to go. The number of gas-related accidents is on the rise. This situation requires immediate attention so that future devastating accidents can be mitigated. This paper talks about gas detection system which does not include human participation. The system monitors around the clock. Whenever the concentration of particular gas increases, the system takes the necessary steps to inform concerned authorities. The alarm, lights, display come into action. With the help of local networks and IoT-based platforms, the employees working in the organization will get messages, notifications, and emails. The sensors can be installed in critical areas and can be monitored simultaneously on a common dashboard at any location with stable internet. The system can be further improvised by pulling data from the dashboard and sending it to the microcontroller which then initiates the sprinkler system. Relays, which can be used to operate solenoid valves, are present on every microcontroller present in the vicinity of the leak. The solenoid valve directs the neutralizer agents towards the point of the leak. Additional upgrades can be implemented by creating automatic exhaust systems; lockdown protocols can be initiated in the form of gate systems. The system requires little wiring, is portable, and is maintenance-friendly. It is easy to install and takes up a very small space. The system can be customized to detect any type of gas. It is cost-effective, reliable, and can be quickly produced.
II. LITERATURE SURVEY
I have explored various articles, posts, documentaries regarding gas leaks in the past. There are myriad reasons that led to the leaks. The damage it caused is unfathomable whether it may be in terms of money, lives, or the environment. Controlling the system needs patience while monitoring and decision-making capabilities under difficult situations. Some of the most prominent problems found in current industries are as follows.
The most prominent factor is time; if authorities had enough time to assess the situation and take appropriate action then a lot of lives could be saved thereby limiting the destruction.
The project uses NodeMCU with a built-in ESP8266 Wi-Fi module. To detect gases MQ-2 semiconductor sensor is installed. The sensor constantly feeds the analog data into NodeMCU when a threshold is reached an appropriate output will be given. The sensor takes input whereas LEDs, LCD with i2c, buzzer gives output. There are two LEDs present which are named green and red. The green LED, as shown in figure 10, is switched on when there are no gases present notifying that the atmosphere is safe. The red LED, as shown in figure 10.2, is switched on when there are gases present notifying the atmosphere is not safe. The buzzer is switched on when gases are present notifying that the atmosphere is not safe. The LCD with i2c flashes messages, as shown in figure 10, such as “SAFE” and “ALL CLEAR” when no gases are present in the atmosphere but when gases are present the messages, as shown in figure 10.2, changes to “ALERT” and “EVACUATE”.
In addition, there are three IoT platforms present namely BLYNK, ThingSpeak, IFTTT. The people working in the organization i.e employees connected to the same Wi-Fi as the NodeMCU can monitor the presence of the gas in the meter, as shown in figure 10.5, by installing the BLYNK app. A notification is pushed when the concentration of the gas is above the threshold even when the app is closed. When the device containing the app has gone out of the Wi-Fi vicinity or cuts off from the Wi-Fi, a notification is pushed stating that the device has gone offline. When the gases shoot above the threshold level an email, as shown in figure 10.8, is pushed via Webhooks and the IFTTT IoT platform. The NodeMCU takes in data from sensors and posts on the ThingSpeak IoT analytics platform wherein the data is shown in a graph (Figure 10.6) and can be retrieved in excel (.csv) with the entry ID, timestamp present for every input. A similar system, as shown in figure 5.3, is created to demonstrate that data from multiple sensors, placed at various critical points, can be processed and viewed in one place without requiring the creation of separate channels for each system. The unified data is acquired from the ThingSpeak platform and is transferred to a NodeMCU which initiates the sprinkler system (relay interfaced with motor, shown in figure 5.4). The sprinkler system displays messages (figure 10.1) such as “Chamber 1 SAFE”, “Chamber 2 SAFE” and a green LED is switched on when no gases are present at the two locations. When gases are present at gas detector 1, the messages (Figure 10.3) show “Chamber 1”, “Gas Leak” and red LED, white LED are switched on. The white LED indicates that the relay is energized. Similarly, when gases are present at gas detector 2, the messages (Figure 11.3) show “Chamber 2”, “Gas Leak” and red LED, white LED is switched on. A relay is present on every microcontroller placed at the critical points. This relay operates a solenoid valve to direct the neutralizer agent, pumped by the sprinkler system, towards the point of the leak. A white LED is used to indicate the behavior of the relay. The systems are cased in a plastic compartment to give it a near product outlook conveying the compactness and definiteness.
IV. CIRCUIT DESIGN
V. SYSTEM DESIGN DESCRIPTION
12. IFTTT (if this, then that) - Applet creator
13. ThingSpeak (IoT analytics platform)
14.A charger (a cable connected to the socket and the male of the charger cable is interfaced with the female port of NodeMCU) was used to power the NodeMCU.
15. A similar system, as shown in figure 5.3, was developed to demonstrate that the data from multiple sensors can be collected, viewed on a single dashboard. The system is governed by the same protocols with only changes in paths to publish data on the IoT platform dashboard.
16. The data from the ThingSpeak platform was transferred to another NodeMCU which initiated the sprinkler system. By incorporating the login credentials, the ESP8266 Wi-Fi module connects with the local network. The communication with the platform was established by giving instructions, such as the read API key and the channel number, to the NodeMCU.
17. The sprinkler system, as shown in figure 4, architecture remains the same with only change is that the system uses an AC motor to pump the sterilizing agent to the required location.
a. During clear air scenario (figure 10)
b. During gas scenario (figure 10.2)
4. Irrespective of the scenario, monitoring features of Blynk, ThingSpeak publishes data round the clock but the user needs to define a particular scenario to enable the trigger feature of IFTTT and notify feature of Blynk.
5. Determine the response time (how fast data need to be transferred) and the action time of a particular component if it is triggered.
6. Multiple systems are developed using the above protocols with only changes in the paths for publishing the data onto a common platform.
7. The data from the sensor which is in analog format is sent to NodeMCU where the data is converted to digital format and the appropriate result is shown whether it be visual (LCD, LEDs), sound (buzzer), IoT platform (email, message, website), switching of the relay (solenoid valve).
7. A relay is interfaced with every NodeMCU present at different locations across the plant. The relay is used to operate the solenoid valve which is used to direct the neutralizing agent towards the leak.
A. Sprinkler System
a. During Clear Air Scenario (Figure 10.1)
b. During Gas Scenario (Figure 10.3)
5. Determine the response time (how fast data need to be transferred) and the action time of a particular component if it is triggered.
6. The prime importance of this microcontroller is that during a leak, the NodeMCU (microcontroller) operates the sprinkler system by switching on an AC motor through the relay.
A. Vehicles using LPG Cylinders and even in households to detect leaks.
B. Chemical industries, offshore &onshore drilling sites, national pipelines, mines, scientific laboratories, power plants (nuclear, thermal, etc).
C. Mass transportation systems to facilitate safe commute.
D. At all sites where hazardous gases pose a significant threat.
IX. FUTURE SCOPE
A. An outer casing that is vibration, moisture, dust resistant must be designed.
B. Instead of relying on third-party IoT platforms, one can create and install our firewalls to make the system tamper-proof.
C. The system can be customized to detect any type of gas by changing the sensor appropriate to the application.
D. Multiple sensors can be incorporated to monitor multiple parameters in a single environment.
E. A standalone battery can be interfaced with the system which automatically functions during power outages/fluctuations.
Firstly, I am grateful to Sreenidhi Institute of Science and Technology for allowing me to work on this project. I would like to thank my college guide Dr. P. Nitish Reddy of the mechanical department and professional guides Dr. Sree Rama Chandra Murthy Dasika and Dr. Satyanarayana Katukojwala for giving me their constant guidance, motivation throughout the period this course work was carried out. I would like to thank my friends K. Raja Prithvi and R.Yashwanth for helping me in creating the base model. A special thanks to Sreenath Reddy, for his ideas and support. I express my sincere gratitude to Prof. T. Ch. Shiva Reddy, Head of Department and Principal for helping me in carrying out this project and supporting me throughout my study at Sreenidhi Institute of Science and Technology.
I may infer that I have successfully built a system that is used to detect gas leaks. Under dangerous situations, the system worked admirably. Continued improvisation and sophistication might lead to a foolproof system that can be appropriately customized to function under various situations and applications. One should understand that such systems replace redundant and monotonous jobs and make human lives better by extending the boundaries of innovation.
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Copyright © 2022 Mourya Sirapu . This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.