Authors: Mr. Aditya Nanaware, Prof. Rajshekhar Rathod, Prof. Achyut Deshmukh
Certificate: View Certificate
Variations in temperature have an impact on both stiff and flexible pavements. Although the main component of pavements is crushed stone aggregate, which is not temperature-sensitive, the binder that holds the aggregates together is more temperature-sensitive. Pavements made of Portland cement concrete (PCC) that are cast in the field experience volume fluctuations as a result of changes in temperature and moisture. Utilize sensors to examine the impact of temperature and moisture change on stiff pavement. Analyze the technical and physical characteristics of sensors. locating sensors in solid pavement in order to get accurate data. This research aims to analyze temperature differences for stiff pavement (mainly for the PQC layer). Table 1 in IRC:58-2015 lists the temperature differences for several Indian areas. In order to design pavement slabs of varied thicknesses, it offers temperature differential values. However, the table\'s footer also states that the data was collected in 1974 by the Government Road Experiment Station in New Delhi. This analysis is done to compare the temperature difference between that table, which is over 50 years old, and the present temperature. It has been noted that temperature measurements obtained from a temperature sensor closely match the information provided by the metrological department. (Data on temperatures from July to November) Data from the prior 10 years are collected for further examination when data from the IMD is confirmed to be the same (2012 to 2021). The temperature disparity over the next 10 years is forecasted using those data (2022 to 2031). When compared to IRC, data have revealed a rise in the minimum and maximum temperature disparity.
Temperature variations affect both rigid and flexible pavements. Though pavements primarily consist of crushed stone aggregates, which are not reactive to temperature, the binder used to bind the aggregates is more dependent on temperature. When Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements are cast in the field, they undergo volume changes because of temperature and moisture variations. The restrained volume changes cause stress developments in a pavement system, and random cracking occurs if the developed tensile stress surpasses the tensile strength of concrete. Temperature and moisture have impact on concrete slab to monitor these parameters structural health monitoring (SHM) processes have been designed. Which determines the status of structures to increase their service life and safety level? Hence, SHM is a very effective tool to increase the confidence level of the condition of structures. During the past few decades, development in the transportation industry compelled the world to focus on monitoring road pavement and providing a sustainable transportation network. The increase in information and sensing technology led the world to invent advanced monitoring systems for road pavement. Besides, pavement monitoring is the first step in the pavement treatment process; it has an effective side of maintenance and has a significant role in the development of transportation systems. Pavement monitoring focusses mainly on surface distresses, texture, patching, friction, surface thickness and vehicle volume. sensors were installed to collect structural information and after the stress analysis the collected information was used for identification of critical locations presented an OSP of TYTON joints of water pipeline subjected to near and far field earthquakes. In this study OSP was considered in TYTON joints to detect seismic damage. They evaluated a new method for OSP based on nonlinear time-history analysis results as an accurate seismic response.
The road surface sensor connects to signal conditioning modules for connection to HSE’s line of data loggers. The signal conditioning modules are DIN rail mountable and can be provided in a mountable enclosure as an option. The surface sensor measuring elements are molded in a resilient epoxy compound with thermal properties that closely match the roadway surface. It works on thermally passive principles; no artificial heating or cooling is used that may alter the measured environment. The maintenance-free design features corrosive-resistant electrodes to derive the presence of moisture on the roadway surface.
C. Temperature and moisture sensors
Company “Interpribor” produced temperature and moisture sensors on the order of Kazakhstan Highway Research Institute. Each sensor, produced in the form of metal capsule, contains element for measurement of temperature based on the effect of thermal resistance and element for measurement of moisture through diamagnetic permeability. Such design concept allows performing the measurement of temperature and moisture simultaneously in points of pavement and subgrade.
Temperature elements of sensors were calibrated by the producer, and moisture elements were calibrated in the laboratory of KazdorNII. Calibration of sensors was performed with the use of soils, selected from the location of their installation. Installation of sensors into pavement and subgrade layers of the highway was performed by the specialists of KazdorNII. Measurement ends of the sensors were put on the surface of the highway and collected in measurement chamber of land system of the set. The set had 11 temperature and moisture sensors, 3 of which were installed into the pavement layers and 8 of them were installed into the subgrade of the highway. The depths for their installation were equal to 2, 12, 23, 35, 70, 105, 140, 175, 210, 245 and 280 cm.
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
Karthikeyan Loganathan et.al the surface temperature of pavements is a critical attribute during pavement design. Surface temperature must be measured at locations of interest based on time-consuming field tests. The key idea of this study is to develop a temperature profile model to predict the surface temperature of flexible and rigid pavements based on weather parameters. Determination of surface temperature with traditional techniques and sensors are replaced by a newly developed method. The method includes the development of a regression model to predict the average annual surface temperature based on weather parameters such as ambient air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and precipitation. Detailed information about temperature and other parameters are extracted from the Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) Long Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) online database. The study was conducted on 61 pavement sections in the state of Alabama for a 10-year period. Audrius Vaitkus et.al Environmental conditions (temperature, moisture and the intensity of the sun) influence variation in asphalt pavement strength during the year. Lithuania is situated in a zone by average warm summers and average cold winters, and the most important climatic factor is the variation of the air temperature. This study presents the influence of temperature (of asphalt concrete (AC) and subgrade layers) and moisture content (of subgrade layers) to the pavement bearing capacity. The experimental research was obtained in five pavement sections of the experimental road. This experimental road was constructed in 2007 in Lithuania and is operated for more than 12 years. This paper presents a statistical analysis between the bearing capacity and the thickness of the asphalt concrete layers, the temperature and moisture content of different pavement layers, among sections, loaded and unloaded lanes (right and left wheel paths and tracks). Liping Liu et.al Temperature is one of the most important factors affecting functional as well as structural performance of asphalt pavements with thick asphalt layer (>30 cm). For a successful pavement design, it is vital to accurately predict the pavement temperatures at various depths. However, most previous researches focused on the temperature predictions for conventional asphalt pavements, of which the asphalt thickness is less than 30 cm. This suggests their proposed models are applicable in top layers, but may not be so effective for temperature predictions at deeper depths. As a result, the primary objective of this research was to develop a statistical model to predict temperatures at deep depths. Three test sites were selected, and they were instrumented with a number of sensors and a data logger to record the pavement temperature hourly. Also, all test sections can provide meteorological monitoring to collect hourly air temperatures and hourly total solar radiation.
Prakash Somani et.al Due to an increase in the population, the need for good and efficient transportation becomes essential to provide better facilities to the people. Nowadays, concrete pavements are more adopted in highway construction.
The concrete pavement is more efficient because of its higher strength, durability, and reliability, but concrete pavements are largely affected due to temperature stresses. This study investigates the potential use of phase changing material (PCM) for the reduction of temperature stresses in concrete pavements. To inspect compressive strength and temperature differential of concrete mixes at different substitution levels of PCM. An indoor heat simulator with temperature sensors was used to measure the temperature differential of concrete mixes. The temperature differential is a major factor for generating curling in concrete pavement. Results recommend that increment in PCM content reduces the temperature stresses in concrete pavement. Sumit Gupta et.al and to use electrical resistance tomography (ERT) for characterizing spatially distributed damage during accelerated pavement testing. This self-sensing concrete not only retains the expected mechanical properties of typical airport pavements, but it can also sense deformation and strain. First, sensing properties were encoded in concrete pavements by modifying the cement-aggregate interface with multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) thin films. MWCNT thin films were spray-coated onto dried fine and coarse aggregates, and the film-coated aggregates were directly used for concrete casting. Second, an ERT algorithm was implemented for spatial conductivity mapping of self-sensing concrete pavements. Extensive laboratory tests were conducted on different sized specimens for characterizing their spatial damage detection performance. Last, a full-scale concrete airport pavement slab was cast with self-sensing concrete patches at locations where damage was expected. A heavy vehicle simulator was employed for accelerated pavement testing to induce cracks, while ERT measurements were collected at periodic intervals during testing.
A. Data Collection
In order to analyze the performance on continuous data collection, six samples were made and four digital temperature sensors installed on each of test samples and temperature measured over a 5 months’ period (July 2022 – November2022). The samples were constructed in open environment to study the temperature variations. The samples’ data was collected eight times a day along with meteorological information from a nearby station (air temperature, rain, wind, etc.). All registered measurements were combined into a database for further analysis of temperature diffusivity on pavement.
Depicts the behavior of daily average temperature for each probe over a year. It is clearly illustrated that the average temperature evolves as expected for each sensor, reaching the minimum and maximum values around November and August, respectively. Moreover, despite being only 2 m apart from each other, a slight difference can be appreciated among temperature evolution in each Sample. This is explained by the different pavement materials.
1) This study is done to perform analysis on temperature differential for rigid pavement (mainly for PQC layer). In IRC: 58-2015 table 1 provides temperature differential for several regions in India. It provides temperature differential values to design pavement slabs of various thicknesses. But at the bottom of table, it also mentions that data provided is by Central Road Research Institute New Delhi in 1974. Which is almost 50 years old, this analysis is carried out for comparison between temperature differential of that table & current temperature. This analysis is performed in Pune region which falls under Maharashtra state. To carry out this analysis Digital Temperature Sensors are used. Specimens of concrete grade M40 are constructed and sensors are installed into them at near the top and & bottom position to monitor temperature. Temperature from July to November is collected and compared with metrological department data. 2) It is observed that temperature readings collected by temperature sensor are nearly similar to data shown by metrological department. (Temperature Data from July to November). After Confirming data is collected is same as IMD, further analysis is done by collecting previous 10 years’ data (2012 to 2021). Based on that data future 10 years’ temperature differential is predicted (2022 to 2031). Data has shown increase in minimum as well as maximum temperature differential when compared to IRC. 3) Surface expansion cracks form as a result of the adverse effects of temperature change on inflexible pavement. It is necessary to evaluate the changes in pavement performance under temperature variation and hypothesized temperature impacts. Temperature measurements are used in the evaluation and design of pavements. Analytical Results for M40 model and Analytical Results for M50 model were computed in the study. As a result, the M50 model suffered the most fatigue damage, while the M40 model suffered the least. As a consequence, a comparison was made between the M40 model and the M50 model. In contrast, the M40 model is more effective than the M50 model. 4) Pavement design is also prepared to test the temperature differential readings for Maharashtra state by assuming design and traffic conditions. Also, trial thickness is Effect of Temperature Variation on Rigid Pavement by Using Sensor assumed and later modified to create safe pavement design. Average temperature is 25.1 0C which is average of years from 2018 to 2022. From design proposed thickness for that temperature is 350mm, which is safe. 5) This study encourages pavement designers to reconsider temperature differentials while doing warping stress calculations.
 Bianchini, A. (2013). Evaluation of temperature-induced curling in concrete slabs using deflection difference analysis. Journal of Transportation Engineering, 139(2), 130–137.  Gupta S., Lin Y. A., Lee, H. J., Buscheck, J., Wu, R., Lynch, J. P., Garg, N., & Loh, K.  J. (2021). In situ crack mapping of large-scale self-sensing concrete pavements using electrical resistance tomography. Cement and Concrete Composites, 122, 104154.  Giuseppina Uva, Francesco Porco, Andrea Fiore, Giacinto Porco (2014). Structural monitoring using fiber optic sensors of a pre-stressed concrete viaduct during construction phases. Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation, 2(1), 27– 37.  Hiller, J. E., & Roesler, J. R. (2010). Simplified nonlinear temperature curling analysis for jointed concrete pavements. Journal of Transportation Engineering, 136(7), 654– 663.  Hu, J., Wang, K., & Bektas, F. (2014). Monitoring of Joint Cracking Development in Concrete Pavement with Concrete Embedment Strain Gages. 147–154.  Huang, K., Zollinger, D. G., Shi, X., & Sun, P. (2017). A developed method of analyzing temperature and moisture profiles in rigid pavement slabs. Construction and Building Materials, 151, 782–788.  Li Y., Liu L., & Sun L. (2018). Temperature predictions for asphalt pavement with thick asphalt layer. Construction and Building Materials, 160, 802–809.  Loganathan K., & Souliman M. I. (2017). Prediction of average annual surface temperature for both flexible and rigid pavements. 4, 259–267.  Mohod M. Kadam K. (2016). A Review on Critical Stresses in Concrete Pavement. National Conference on Advance in Construction Technology and Management 19- 20th February, 2016 VNIT Nagpur, February.  Masud M. M., & Haider S. W. (2020). Impact of Moisture Infiltration on Rigid Pavement Performance and Optimum Timing for resealing of Damaged Joints IRF GLOBAL R2T Conference. November.  P. J., Balasubramanian, R., Miller, H., Viall, B., Igoe, P., & Eftekhari, S. (2017). Wireless Subsurface Sensors Supporting Remote Roadway Management. 491–498.  Pandey V. K. Student, M. T., Engineering, C., & Engineering, F. (2021). A Review on Failure of Rigid Pavement. 01, 548–553.  Pour-Ghaz M., Barrett T., Ley T., Materer N., Apblett A., & Weiss J. (2014). Wireless Crack Detection in Concrete Elements Using Conductive Surface Sensors and Radio Frequency Identification Technology. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 26(5), 923–929.  Schwartz C. W., Cetin B., Forman B. A., & Ruppelt B. (2018). Performance of Different Climate Data Sources in Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Distress Analyses. Journal of Transportation Engineering, Part B: Pavements, 144(1), 04017023.  Shtayat A., Moridpour S., Best B., Shroff A., & Raol D. (2020). A review of monitoring systems of pavement condition in paved and unpaved roads. Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering (English Edition), 7(5), 629–638.  Somani P., & Gaur A. (2020). Evaluation and reduction of temperature stresses in concrete pavement by using phase changing material. Materials Today: Proceedings, 32, 856–864.  Vaitkus A., Žalimiene L., Židanavi?iute J., & Žilioniene D. (2019). Influence of temperature and moisture content on pavement bearing capacity with improved subgrade. Materials, 12(23).  Yeon J. H., Choi S., Ha S. & Won M. C. (2013). Effects of creep and built-in curling on stress development of Portland cement concrete pavement under environmental loadings. Journal of Transportation Engineering, 139(2), 147–155.  Zhao H., Wu Z., Wang S., Zheng J., & Che G. (2011). Concrete pavement deicing with carbon fiber heating wires. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 65(3), 413–420.
Copyright © 2023 Mr. Aditya Nanaware, Prof. Rajshekhar Rathod, Prof. Achyut Deshmukh. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.