Authors: Gowthami S, Suganya R
Certificate: View Certificate
Pervious concrete is a light-weight concrete which is prepared by eliminating the fine aggregate from conventional concrete, also known as \'no fine concrete\' or \'porous concrete\'. It is a combination of graded coarse aggregates, cement materials and water. Now-a-days we are very much interested in sustainable and eco-friendly way of constructions. It is an important application for sustainable construction. It is traditionally used in parking areas, areas with light traffic, residential streets, pedestrian walkways, and greenhouses. The experimental investigation will be carried out to study the properties of concrete with artificial fibers (Polypropylene fiber & Steel fiber) to increase the strength of the concrete with replacement of cement by different percentage of GGBS & micro silica problems will be discussed in this project.
Pervious concrete (also called porous concrete, permeable concrete, and no fines concrete and porous pavement) is a special type of concrete with a high porosity used for concrete flatwork applications that allows water from precipitation and other sources to pass directly through, thereby reducing the runoff from a site and allowing groundwater recharge. Pervious concrete is made using large aggregates with little to no fine aggregates.
The concrete paste then coats the aggregates and allows water to pass through the concrete slab. Pervious concrete is traditionally used in parking areas, areas with light traffic, residential streets, pedestrian walkways, and greenhouses. It is an important application for sustainable construction and is one of many low impact development techniques used by builders to protect water quality.
Pervious concrete was first used in the 1800s in Europe as pavement surfacing and load bearing walls. Cost efficiency was the main motive due to a decreased amount of cement. It became popular again in the 1920s for two storey homes in Scotland and England. It became increasingly viable in Europe after WWII due to the scarcity of cement. It did not become as popular in the US until the 1970s. In India it became popular in 2000
II. MATERIALS USED
B. Split Tensile Strength On Concrete
The tensile strength is one of the basic and important properties of the concrete. The concrete is not usually expected to resist the direct tension because of its low tensile strength and brittle nature. However the determination of tensile strength of concrete is necessary to determine the load at which the concrete members may crack. The cracking is a form of tension failure. The splitting tests are well known indirect tests used for determining the tensile strength of concrete sometimes referred to as split tensile strength of concrete. The test consist of applying a compressive line load along the opposite generators of concrete cylinder placed with its axis horizontal between the compressive platens. Due to the compression loading a fairly uniform tensile stress is developed over nearly 2/3 of the loaded diameter as obtained from an elastic analysis. The magnitude of this tensile stress σsp is given by the formula σsp= 2p/πdl
Where p is the applied load, d and l are the diameter and the length of the specimen respectively. Due to the tensile stress, the specimen fails by splitting vertically into two halves; this test is also called the split test. The test has been standardized for concrete specimens with diameter larger than four times the maximum size of the coarse aggregate or 150mm whichever is greater. The length of the specimens shall not be less than the diameter and not more than twice the diameter. For the routine testing, the specimens shall be cylinders 150mm diameter and 300mm in length. The apparatus used are Cylinder mould, compression testing machine.
C. Flexural Strength Of Concrete
Direct measurement of tensile strength of concrete is difficult. Neither specimens nor testing apparatus have been designed which assure uniform distribution of the ‘pull’ applied to the concrete. While a number of investigations involving the direct measurement of tensile strength have been made, beam tests are found to be dependable to measure the flexural strength property of concrete. The value of the modulus of rupture (extreme fibre stress in bending) depends on the dimension of the beam and manner of loading. The systems of loading used in finding out the flexural tension are central point loading and third point loading. In the central point loading, maximum fibre stress will come below the point of loading where the bending moment is maximum. In the symmetrical two point loading, the critical crack may appear at any section, not strong enough to resist the stress within the middle third, where the bending moment is maximum. It can be expected that the two point loading will yield a lower value of modulus of rupture than the centre point loading.
D. Infiltration Test
Infiltration rate per single ring infiltrometer was determined in accordance with ASTM C1701. The apparatus, shown in Figure 6.5.1, consists of a ring 12” (30.0 cm) in diameter, which is to be sealed to the PCP surface with plumber’s putty. The location was pre-wetted by pouring 0.12 ft3 (3.6 litres) of water into the ring and keeping water levels between 0.4” and 0.6” (1.0 cm and 1.5 cm) above the surface of the pavement. Locations taking more than 30 seconds to infiltrate the pre-wetting water were tested for infiltration rate using 0.12 ft3 (3.6 litres) of water, other locations required 0.63 ft3 (18 litres) of water for testing. Water was poured into the ring and kept between 0.4” and 0.6” (1.0 cm and 1.5 cm) above the surface of the pavement. Time was recorded from when water made contact with the pavement surface to the time when water was no longer visible. Determine infiltration rate by dividing the volume of water by the area tested and the time required for infiltration.
First and foremost, I would like to thank the Almighty God for giving me the power to believe in myself and achieve my goals. I sincerely remit my due respect to my project guide Mrs. R.Suganya., M.E., Assistant Professor in Civil Engineering for his encouragement and guidance throughout the project. I extend my sincere thanks to all faculty members, non-teaching staff and my friends for their help and support in completing this project work.
In our project we have investigated the strength of concrete with artificial fibers like polypropylene fibers and steel fibers and replacement of cement by GGBS and micro silica 1) Density of concrete is more as percentage of fiber increases. 2) Compressive strength, flexural strength, split tensile strength increase 3) Linearly with increased percentage of GGBS. 4) Compressive strength, flexural strength, split tensile strength of mix. 5) Containing steel fiber is greater than the mix containing polypropylene Fiber. 6) Compressive strength increased by 23%, flexural strength increased by 34% and split tensile strength increased by 40%. 7) Infiltration rate and workability decreased due to the incorporation of fibers.
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