Authors: Kishanthini P, Lavanya G
Certificate: View Certificate
Concrete is the most widely used and versatile building material in all kinds of civil engineering structures.A little more than 5% of global CO2 emissions are attributable to cement, the primary component of concrete.Concrete is strengthened using suitable alternative materials to make it more environmentally friendly.Making the concrete industry sustainable is essential in the current climate in order to reduce its detrimental environmental effects.When choosing raw materials for construction, environmentally friendly products must be employed.The concrete industry is constantly looking for supplemental cementitious materials (SCMs) to address the problem of solid waste disposal.Cement can be substituted with ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), a solid waste made by the iron and steel industry. Cement alternatives can also be made from other resources, such as calcined clay, which is commonly found in oil sand tailings.This study\'s objective is to experimentally investigate the effects of GGBS in structural concrete by partially substituting calcined clay for cement (5, 10, and 15 percent) and cement for the remaining cement volume.Numerous tests, such as compressive,tensile,and flexural tests,will be used.
In civil engineering, building materials are primarily used in construction.One of the most traditional modern building materials is concrete, which generates more waste than any other material. Much research has been done to attempt and reduce the impact of the cement.The industry can cut its emissions of greenhouse gases by improving the efficiency of the cement manufacturing process or by introducing supplemental cementitious materials (SCMs), which partially replace conventional cement.Concrete comes in a variety of various varieties based on the binder employed.Asphalt, epoxy, and concrete built with normal Portland cement are a few examples.Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) concrete is the most popular type of concrete used in construction.4.5 billion metric tonnes of it worldwide each year. It has several advantages, including a moderately high compressive strength, independence from shape and form restrictions, low cost, widespread availability of raw materials, adaptability, low energy requirements, and application in a range of environmental settings. Every step in the production of Portland cement has the potential to have an impact on the environment. These include the excessive use of fuel during production, the CO2 emissions from the raw materials during production, and the harm that quarrying causes to the environment.Using machinery and blasting in quarries can also generate airborne contaminants like dust, fumes, noise, and vibration. Equipment to reduce dust emissions during quarrying and cement manufacturing, as well as equipment to trap and separate exhaust gases, are both being used more frequently.It is responsible for around 5% of the total yearly CO2 emissions caused by humans, of which 50% are due to chemical industrial processes and 40% are due to fuel burning.
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
Aneeta Anna Raju, Lekshmi Priya R, and Shahas S (2017)This study demonstrates that GGBS and bagasse ash can be used in place of cement in concrete without affecting the strength of the final product.The percentage of the mix made up of GGBS and bagasse ash is given by substituting OPC of 43 grade with 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% of the maximum pozzolanic action.When a blend with high pozzolanic activity substitutes 10% of the cement, the compressive strength increases by 5.64 percent.
Athira Babu and Dr. M. Nazeer(2016) examined the results of experiments on the ternary blended concrete's strength and durability.
Different mixes comprising different percentages of silica fume, such as 5%, 10%, and 50%, were used.We produced a binary combination with 50% GGBS.
The GGBS content has kept steady throughout the remaining mixes.The findings indicate that when silica fume content rises, workability tends to decrease.
Narender Reddy and T. Meena (2020)This study advises using Alccofine (an ultra-fine form of slag) as an alternative to cement, which has a substantial negative impact on the environment.After that, Alcofine was used to replace the cement, with the replacement percentage varying between 8 and 14 percent while preserving this ideal ratio of GGBS.
Poornachand Pamu and Kasi Rekha (2018)The results of this investigation showed that ternary blended concrete is more heat resistant than traditional concrete.
P. R. Sreehadevan Pillai and Akhil S. Nair (2018)This study demonstrates how readily available waste materials, such as copper slag and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), have shown improved strength when utilised in place of cement and fine aggregate.
Kaushal Prajapati and Abbas Jamani (2017)This study discusses the use of metakaolin and ground granulated blast furnace slag to modify the strength, workability, and durability qualities of concrete.The results showed that adding metakaolin and GGBS to concrete improved its workability, strength, and durability.
S. Sahith Reddy and M. Achyutha Kumar Reddy (2021)According to this study, incorporating pozzolanic components in concrete will be a more secure way to address this problem.The use of fly ash, Ground Granular Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS), Metakaolin, and silica fume as pozzolanic ingredients in concrete has been the subject of numerous studies.
Carlos H. Aramburo, Cesar Pedrajas, and Rafael Talero (2020)According to this journal, calcined clay has surpassed other cementitious materials as having the highest potential to reduce clinker/cement.This study focused on the calcined clay content of the pozzolanic additions when calcined clay was substituted at a level greater than 40%.
Following a thorough analysis of the literature review, which resulted in the acquisition of knowledge about fabrication and a profound comprehension of the fabrication processes, the technique was framed in the following manner.According to the approach that has been described, the procedure has been completed and the experimental results have been evaluated.
Cement can be successfully replaced by GGBS and Calcined Clay.Different cement proportions can be utilised to partially replace GGBS and calcined clay in order to determine the appropriate replacement percentage.Concrete will be replaced with hene, GGBS, an industrial byproduct, and calcined clay, a natural pozzolan.Due of environmental challenges and CO2 emissions, the main goal is to use them in concrete-related projects.Both materials have the capacity to cement, which increases their strength and capacity to produce an environment that is benevolent to the environment. As a result, superplasticizers will also be added to concrete in order to give it the increased properties required.The best replacement rate for calcined clay is 20%, which also lowers the risk of pollution.Therefore, cement can replace 20% of CC and 40% of GGBS.Satisfactory findings were obtained for compressive strength, split tensile strength, and flexural strength.Therefore, moving to cement aids in lowering dangerous material emissions.Additionally, it contributes to a pollution-free and environmentally beneficial atmosphere.
 Aneeta Anna Raju and Lekshmi Priya R. and Shahas S., \"Experimental Investigation on Strength of Ternary Blended Concrete”, International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), Volume 6, Issue 05, 2017  Athira Babu, M. Nazeer \"Study on the Strength and Durability Properties of Ternary Blended Concrete\" (2016), International Journal of Engineering,Research&Technology,(IJERT)NCRACE-2015:Conference&Proceedings.  A. Narender Reddy and T. Meena, \"A Study on Compressive Behavior of Ternary Blended Concrete Incorporating Alccofine,\" Proceedings 5 (2018) 11356–11363 (2020).  Abdul Razak B. H., D. L. Venkatesh Babu \"Fresh, Strength, and Durability Characteristics of Binary and Ternary Blended Self Compacting Concrete\" (2019) International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT) ISSN: 2249 – 8958.  Poornachand Pamu and Kasi Rekha\'s \"Performance of Ternary Blended Concrete Exposed to High Temperatures\" (2018) Pages 57–62, International Journal of Latest Engineering and Management Research, ISSN 2455, Volume 03, Issue 07.  R Srinivas Prabhu, R Gobinath, and R Anuradha, \"An art of Research on concrete Ternary mixed\" (2020) Materials Science Engineering981(2020)032089,ICRAEM(2020)IOP:Conf.  Akhil S. Nair and P. R. Sreemahadeva Pillai, \"The Effect of GGBFS and Copper Slag on Strength of Self Compacting Concrete: An Experimental Study\" (2018) IJEAT, Volume 7 Issue 4, ISSN 2249-8958, International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology  Dr. D. S. Prakash and Sahana. N. S., \"An Experimental Investigation on the Properties of Ternary Blended Fiber Reinforced Concrete\" (2018) IRJET, Volume: 4, Issue: 9, International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology  Kaushal Prajapati and Abbas Jamani, \"Influence of metakaolin and GGBS in ternary blended concrete with recycled coarse material\" 2017 International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056 Volume: 04 Issue: 04.  Vineet Shah, Anuj Parashar, Geetika Mishra, Satya Medepalli, Sreejith Krishnan, and Shashank Bishnoi (2018) \"Influence of cement replacement by limestone calcined clay pozzolan on the engineering qualities of mortar and concrete,\" New Developments in Cement Research.  S. Sahith Reddy and M. Achyutha Kumar Reddy \"Lime calcined clay cement (LC3): A Review\"Earth and environmental science, volume 796, issue 1, IOP Conference Series (2021).  Carlos H. Aramburo, Caesar Pedrajas, and Rafael Talero (2020) \"Portland Cements with High Content of Calcined Clay: Mechanical Strength Behaviour and Sulfate Durability,\".  Maganti Janardhan Yadav, P Swamy, B D V Chandra Mohan Rao, K Almas, Naga Ratna Giri \"Performance investigations on limestone calcined clay-based concrete\" (2021)IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1091 (2021) 012076.  Quang Dieu Nguyen, Muhammad Shakhaout Hossain Khan, and Arnaud Caste \"Engineering Properties of Limestone Calcined Clay Concrete\" (2018) Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 16, 343–357.  A.Suresh Kumar, M. Muthukannan, K. Arunkumar, and A. Chithambar Ganesh (2020).\"A review on limestone calcined clay cement (LC3) concrete,\"  Sreejith Krishnan and Shashank Bishnoi, \"High Level Clinker Replacement in Ternary Limestone-Calcined Clay-Clinker Cement,\" Advances in Structural Engineering, 2015, ed. by V. Matsagar, DOI: 10.1007/978-81-322-2187-6 13.  Radhakrishna G. Pillai, Ravindra Gettu, Manu Santhanam, Sripriya Rengaraju, Yuvaraj Dhandapani, Sundar Ratnarajan, and Anusha S. Basavaraj\"Service life and lifecycle assessment of reinforced concrete systems with limestone calcined clay cement (LC3\") (2018), doi:10.1016/j.cemconres.2018.11.019.  Chaithra H. L., Pramod K., and Dr. Chandrashekar \"An Experimental Study on Partial Replacement of Cement by GGBs and Natural Sand by Quarry Sand in Concrete’’(2015), International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), ,ISSN 22780181, Volume 4, Issue 5.  S.Revathy \"A study on partial replacement of cement with ggbs,\" by M.E. Poovarasan, A. Prabhaharan, P.G. Prabhakaran, K.B., and O.R. Sivaraj (2019) Volume 6, Issue 3, ISSN 23938374 (print), 2394-0697 (online).  Bahador Sabet Divsholi, Tze Yang Darren Lim, and Susanto Teng, \"Durability Properties and Microstructure of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag Cement Concrete,\" International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 157–164 (2014).  B.Kaviya, R. Arjun, Rajkumar, P., Ramakrishnan, S., and Subash (2017) \"Study on Partial Replacement of Cement by Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS)\" International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics Volume 116 No.13 2017, 411-416.  Karen Scrivener, Hong Wong, Hamed Maraghechi, Francis Avet, and Hadi Kamyab \"Performance of Limestone Calcined Clay Cement (LC3) with Different Kaolinite Contents with Respect to Chloride Transport\" (2018), Materials and Structures 51:125.  Dr. Paul Shaji and Arjun K R “Limestone and inferior calcined clay are used to partially replace cement clinker in construction materials”. (2019) International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), Volume: 06, Issue: 8.  J. Vengadesh Marshall Raman, and V. Murali Krishnan (2017) \"Partial Replacement of Cement with GGBS in Self Compacting Concrete for Sustainable Construction\", SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering (SSRG -IJCE), Volume 4 Issue 3.  S. Vijaya Bhaskar Reddya and Dr. P. Srinivasa Rao, \"Experimental research on Impact resistance of Ternary concrete and Steel Fiber Reinforced Ternary concrete utilising MS and GGBS,\" IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSRJMCE), e-ISSN: 2278-1684, p-ISSN: 2320-334X, PP 90-98 (2016).
Copyright © 2022 Kishanthini P, Lavanya G. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.