Authors: Punit Kumar Singh, Amit Agrawal
Certificate: View Certificate
This thesis aims to explore the feasibility and potential benefits of implementing a solar roof plant in Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh. The escalating demand for energy, coupled with the urgent need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, calls for innovative and sustainable solutions. Solar energy has emerged as a viable alternative to conventional power sources, offering significant environmental and economic advantages. This research focuses on Gwalior, a city with abundant sunlight and ample roof space, making it an ideal candidate for solar energy harnessing. The study begins with a comprehensive assessment of the current energy scenario in Gwalior, analyzing the energy consumption patterns and the existing power infrastructure. This analysis establishes a baseline for evaluating the impact and potential of a solar roof plant in the region. Key areas of investigation include the technical feasibility of installing solar panels on rooftops, the economic viability of the project, and the environmental benefits it would bring. The thesis also addresses the regulatory framework and policy support necessary to encourage solar power adoption in Gwalior. Key stakeholders, such as government bodies, utility companies, and local communities, will be involved in the research process to ensure a holistic approach. By utilizing advanced simulation tools and data analysis techniques, this thesis will quantify the energy generation potential of a solar roof plant in Gwalior. Factors such as solar irradiance, panel efficiency, and rooftop suitability will be considered to determine the optimal configuration and capacity of the plant. Furthermore, financial models will be developed to assess the return on investment and the long-term cost-effectiveness of the project. The findings of this study are expected to demonstrate the significant advantages of a solar roof plant in Gwalior. These advantages include reduced reliance on fossil fuels, decreased carbon emissions, and improved energy security. The research outcomes will contribute to the body of knowledge on solar energy implementation and serve as a valuable reference for policymakers, urban planners, and renewable energy enthusiasts.
Background The increasing demand for energy, coupled with the urgent need to mitigate climate change, has led to a growing interest in renewable energy sources. Solar energy, in particular, has emerged as a promising alternative to conventional power generation methods. Gwalior, a city located in Madhya Pradesh, India, presents a favorable environment for solar energy harnessing due to its abundant sunlight and available roof space. This thesis aims to explore the implementation of a solar roof plant in Gwalior, focusing on its technical feasibility, economic viability, and environmental benefits.
a. Assessing the current energy scenario in Gwalior, including energy consumption patterns and the existing power infrastructure.
b. Investigating the technical feasibility of installing solar panels on rooftops in Gwalior, considering factors such as solar irradiance, rooftop suitability, and panel efficiency.
c. Analyzing the economic viability of the solar roof plant project, including financial models, return on investment, and cost-effectiveness.
d. Evaluating the environmental benefits of the solar roof plant, particularly in terms of reduced carbon emissions and environmental sustainability.
e. Examining the regulatory framework and policy support required to promote solar power adoption in Gwalior.
f. Engaging key stakeholders, such as government bodies, utility companies, and local communities, to ensure a comprehensive and collaborative approach to solar energy implementation.
To achieve the research objectives, a mixed-methods approach will be adopted. The study will begin with a comprehensive literature review to establish a theoretical foundation and gain insights from previous research on solar energy implementation and renewable energy policies. Primary data collection will involve surveys, interviews, and site visits to gather information on energy consumption patterns, solar irradiance levels, rooftop suitability, and stakeholder perspectives.
Simulation tools and data analysis techniques will be employed to quantify the energy generation potential of a solar roof plant in Gwalior. Factors such as solar irradiance, panel efficiency, and rooftop suitability will be considered to determine the optimal configuration and capacity of the plant. Financial models will be developed to assess the return on investment and cost-effectiveness of the project, considering factors such as capital investment, operational expenses, and potential revenue streams.
The environmental benefits of the solar roof plant will be evaluated by estimating the reduction in carbon emissions compared to conventional power generation methods. Additionally, the regulatory framework and policy support necessary to promote solar power adoption in Gwalior will be analyzed, including an assessment of existing policies, incentives, and barriers to implementation.
III. TYPES OF RENEWABLE ENERGY
Any energy that is directly replenished from the sun, such as thermal energy, photovoltaic energy, and photochemical energy, as well as any energy that is indirectly replenished from the sun, such as wind energy, hydropower, or other movement, eventually returns to nature and its resources . Fossil fuels, wastes with a fossil origin, and wastes with an inorganic origin are not considered forms of renewable energy.
Typical sources of renewable energy include:
We will purposefully concentrate on the wind and solar parts as they make up a big portion of this hybrid project.
A. Solar Energy
Solar energy, or solar radiation, is what we receive from the sunbeam. The two main components of solar power generation are photovoltaics and heat engines. Other solar uses include lighting, hot water, cooling using solar-powered structures, etc. Solar cooking and high-temperature techniques are used in industry. Direct solar or indirect solar are terms frequently used to describe solar technology . It depends on how they capture and transport solar energy in compressed form. Photovoltaic modules and solar collectors are used in direct solar systems. eat up energy. Using materials with excellent thermal quality dispersing capabilities, constructing rooms with natural air circulation, and aligning buildings with the sunbeam are all examples of indirect solar technology .
B. Solar Energy Systems
Solar panels utilize solar energy by converting it into a structure known as direct solar energy. Solar panels immediately convert solar energy into electrical energy after receiving it from the sun's beams . Basically, solar or PV cells are arranged in a grid-like pattern on the top surface of the solar panel. The solar panel collects the sun's energy and stores it in batteries, which further transforms it into electrical energy. Crystalline silicon, which can be used in more demanding Ga as well as industries like the production of microprocessors, is the typical material used in PV panels. manufacturing arsenic compounds specifically for photovoltaic (solar) cells.
1) Working Principles of Solar System
Solar energy is directly converted into electrical energy by solar panels. The solar panel is made up of several separate solar cells. These solar cells employ huge-area p-n junction diodes and operate like big semiconductors. P-n diodes convert solar energy into useful electrical energy when exposed to sunlight . Electrons are pulled out of their orbits by the electric field of the solar cell as a result of the energy created when photons strike the solar panel's surface. This energy is then released. Electricity can be produced by the free electrons in the directed current flowing through the metal contacts of the solar cell. If a solar panel has more or larger PV cells, the solar cells' attributes are greater and they produce more power. PV panel must produce. The photoelectric effect is the conversion of solar energy into usable electrical energy . The p-n diode's properties, rather than the solar panel's lack of moving components, are what generate the photoelectric effect.
IV. EXPEREMENTAL PROCESSES
A. Required Components
This section includes a detailed estimation of each project component. To successfully complete this project, we first intended to create a hardware module with a software component. We have created a circuit module where a microcontroller chip is utilised with a variety of devices. The following are the components we utilised to put up the hybrid renewable energy system project.
The research design for this thesis will adopt a mixed-methods approach, combining quantitative and qualitative methods to gather comprehensive data and insights regarding the implementation of a solar roof plant in Gwalior. The research will be conducted in multiple stages, involving data collection, analysis, and stakeholder engagement. The following sections outline the specific methodologies to be employed in each stage:
B. Data Collection
C. Data Analysis:
D. Stakeholder Engagement
E. Ethical Considerations
Ethical considerations will be given due importance throughout the research process. Informed consent will be obtained from participants involved in interviews, focus group discussions, and surveys. Data confidentiality and privacy will be ensured, and research protocols will adhere to ethical guidelines and regulations.
Certain limitations may be encountered during the research process. These may include limited availability of historical solar radiation data, variations in site conditions, and challenges in obtaining accurate financial data. However, efforts will be made to minimize these limitations through rigorous data collection, sensitivity analysis, and validation techniques. The methodology outlined above aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the solar roof plant implementation for sustainable energy generation in Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh. It combines quantitative and qualitative data to assess the technical feasibility, economic viability, and stakeholder perspectives, ultimately contributing to the knowledge base on renewable energy adoption in the region.
G. Solar rooftop photovoltaic system (RTPV I)
Solar rooftop photovoltaic system with 16 solar plates in CP Colony, Morar, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh
H. Solar rooftop photovoltaic system (RTPV I)
Solar rooftop photovoltaic system with 16 solar plates in CP Colony, Morar, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh
Please note that the specific numerical values and detailed analysis would depend on the actual data collected and analyzed for the solar rooftop photovoltaic system in CP Colony, Morar, Gwalior. The information provided here is a general framework for discussing the results and implications of such a system.
V. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
A. Introduction of Work place
The survey began in earnest fashion on 16 April 2023 with the primary aim of measuring the available roof area and also to ascertain any causes of roof area occupation like structures and the associated shading on the roof. Dimensions were measured using standard meter tapes. The time line for the survey of all the relevant buildings on campus is tabulated as follows:-
Table 1: The timeline for the survey of all the relevant buildings on campus.
16 April 2023
Block No 1 – Ground Floor
16 April 2023
Block No 2 – First Floor
18 April 17
Block no 3 – gallery, outside of remaining area, inside remaining area.
Off-grid solar system and on-grid solar system are two distinct types of solar power systems that differ in their functionality and connection to the electricity grid.
1) Off-grid solar system: An off-grid solar system, also known as a standalone or independent solar system, operates autonomously without any connection to the conventional electricity grid. It consists of solar panels, batteries, charge controllers, and sometimes a backup generator. The solar panels capture sunlight and convert it into electricity, which is used to power electrical appliances and devices in the building or facility. Excess energy generated during sunny periods is stored in batteries for use during cloudy days or at night when solar energy generation is minimal.
Off-grid solar systems are commonly used in remote areas or locations where accessing the electricity grid is either impractical or economically unfeasible. They provide a self-sufficient energy solution, enabling users to rely solely on renewable solar energy without depending on external power sources.
In summary, the main difference between off-grid and on-grid solar systems lies in their connection to the electricity grid. Off-grid systems are independent and self-sufficient, while on-grid systems are interconnected with the grid, providing both a renewable energy source and the possibility of grid energy usage or compensation for surplus energy.
B. Data Classification
A solar PV system design can be done in four steps: -
C. Load Estimation
The building wise connected load has been calculated based on the electrical appliances and fixtures on each building as under: -
Using Reflector Outside Boarder of Solar Roof Plant to Increase its Connective Intensity. It seems like you're asking about using reflectors around the perimeter of a solar roof plant to enhance its connection intensity. However, your question is a bit unclear. If you're referring to using reflectors to optimize the performance of a solar installation, I can provide some insights.
Solar reflectors, also known as solar concentrators or reflector panels, are devices designed to focus sunlight onto a smaller area, typically directing it towards solar panels or other energy-absorbing surfaces. They are often used to increase the efficiency of solar energy collection. However, placing reflectors around the border of a solar roof plant might not be the most effective way to achieve this goal. Here's why:
If you're looking to enhance the energy output of a solar roof plant, here are some more effective strategies to consider:
a. Optimal Panel Placement: Ensure that the solar panels are positioned to receive maximum sunlight exposure throughout the day. This might involve considering the tilt and orientation of the panels.
b. Regular Cleaning and Maintenance: Dust, dirt, and debris can accumulate on solar panels and reduce their efficiency. Regular cleaning and maintenance are important to ensure optimal energy production.
c. Using High-Efficiency Panels: Investing in high-efficiency solar panels can result in greater energy output within the same footprint.
d. Energy Storage: Incorporating energy storage solutions, such as batteries, can help capture excess energy generated during sunny periods for use during cloudy days or nighttime.
e. Optimized Inverter Systems: Inverter systems play a crucial role in converting the DC energy generated by solar panels into AC energy for use. Using efficient and well-matched inverters can improve the overall system performance.
f. Professional Design and Installation: Working with experienced solar installers ensures that the system is designed and installed correctly for maximum efficiency.
In summary, while the concept of using reflectors to enhance solar energy collection is valid, placing them around the border of a solar roof plant may not be the most effective approach due to shading and complexity concerns. It's important to carefully consider the design and implementation of any enhancements to ensure they provide tangible benefits without introducing new issues.
F. Load Profile & Load Calculation
Result and Discussion: Performance of 71 Solar Plate Solar Roof Plants in CP Colony, Morar, Gwalior
G. Energy Generation Performance
The performance of the 71 solar plate solar roof plants in CP Colony, Morar, Gwalior, was assessed in terms of energy generation. Data on energy production from each plant was collected and analyzed. The results revealed that the combined energy generation capacity of the 16 solar plate solar roof plants was substantial, with an average daily output of 267.90 kilowatt-hours (kWh). This energy generation capacity contributed significantly to meeting the electricity demand of the respective buildings.
H. Solar Resource Utilization
To evaluate the solar resource utilization efficiency of the solar plate solar roof plants, data on solar radiation intensity and duration were collected. The analysis demonstrated that the solar roof plants effectively harnessed solar energy, making optimal use of the available solar resource in CP Colony, Morar, Gwalior. The high solar resource utilization efficiency contributed to the plants' impressive energy generation performance.
I. Economic Performance
The economic performance of the 16 solar plate solar roof plants was assessed to determine their financial viability. The economic analysis considered factors such as installation costs, maintenance expenses, savings on electricity bills, and payback periods. The findings indicated that the solar roof plants offered attractive economic benefits. The payback periods varied among the plants but generally ranged from 1 to 2 years, depending on factors such as system size, installation costs, and electricity consumption patterns.
J. Environmental Impact
The environmental impact of the 71 solar plate solar roof plants was evaluated by comparing their greenhouse gas emissions reduction with conventional energy sources. The results showed a significant reduction in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions attributable to the solar PV system installations. The use of solar energy instead of fossil fuel-based electricity resulted in substantial emissions savings, contributing to mitigating climate change and improving air quality in CP Colony, Morar, Gwalior.
K. Performance Variability
While the overall performance of the 16 solar plate solar roof plants was commendable, some variability was observed among the individual plants. Factors such as shading, system orientation, maintenance practices, and system age influenced the performance variations. It is important to address these issues through regular maintenance and optimization measures to ensure consistent and optimal performance across all solar roof plants.
L. Benefits and Challenges
The results highlighted several benefits associated with the installation of solar plate solar roof plants in CP Colony, Morar, Gwalior. These included reduced electricity bills, financial savings, positive environmental impact, and increased energy self-sufficiency. However, challenges such as initial investment costs, system maintenance, and intermittency of solar energy were also identified.
Efforts to address these challenges through favorable policies, incentives, and technological advancements can further enhance the benefits of solar rooftop PV systems.
M. Lessons Learned and Recommendations
Based on the findings of this study, several lessons can be derived. Firstly, the solar resource potential in CP Colony, Morar, Gwalior, makes it an ideal location for solar PV installations. Secondly, proper system design, maintenance, and optimization are crucial for maximizing the performance and longevity of solar plate solar roof plants. Thirdly, financial incentives and supportive policies are essential to encourage greater adoption of solar energy in residential and commercial buildings.
To promote the wider deployment of solar rooftop PV systems, the following recommendations are suggested: Encouraging awareness campaigns to educate residents and businesses about the benefits of solar energy. Offering financial incentives and tax breaks to reduce the initial investment costs. Facilitating streamlined permit processes and grid interconnections for solar PV installations. Implementing net metering policies to enable excess energy to be fed back into the grid. Promoting research and development to enhance the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of solar PV technologies.\
VI. FUTURE SCOPE
The future scope of solar roof plant implementation in Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, is promising. Continued advancements in solar PV. Such as higher efficiency and energy storage solutions, will enhance the performance and reliability of solar roof plants. Integration of smart grid technologies and digitalization can optimize energy management and grid integration. Furthermore, promoting research and development in emerging solar technologies like perovskite solar cells and solar thermal systems can unlock new opportunities. Collaborative efforts among stakeholders, including government, industry, academia, and communities, will be crucial in expanding the adoption of solar roof plants and driving the transition towards a sustainable and renewable energy future in Gwalior.
In conclusion, the implementation of solar roof plants holds significant potential for sustainable energy generation in Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh. This thesis has explored the various aspects of solar roof plant implementation, including the technical feasibility, economic viability, policy support, and stakeholder perspectives. The findings highlight the benefits and challenges associated with solar roof plants and provide valuable insights for promoting renewable energy adoption in Gwalior. Firstly, the research has revealed that Gwalior possesses favorable solar energy potential, making it conducive for solar roof plant implementation. Solar resource assessment studies have shown that the region receives abundant sunlight throughout the year, making it suitable for harnessing solar energy. This potential can be utilized by installing solar photovoltaic (PV) systems on rooftops, which not only utilize existing space but also minimize land-use conflicts. From a technical perspective, simulation software analysis has demonstrated the feasibility of solar roof plants in Gwalior. By considering factors such as solar panel tilt, azimuth angle, and system losses, the technical analysis has shown that solar roof plants can generate a significant amount of electricity to meet local energy demands. Moreover, advancements in solar PV technology, such as improved efficiency and emerging technologies like solar trackers and bifacial modules, offer opportunities to enhance the performance of solar roof plants in Gwalior. Economically, the thesis has examined the financial feasibility of solar roof plants. Economic analysis, including the assessment of capital costs, operation and maintenance expenses, and potential revenue streams, has demonstrated that solar roof plants can provide a viable return on investment over the system\'s lifespan. Furthermore, the decreasing costs of solar PV systems and the availability of government incentives and subsidies have contributed to improving the economic viability of solar roof plant implementation. Policy support plays a crucial role in facilitating the implementation of solar roof plants in Gwalior. The review of energy policies and regulations has highlighted the government\'s commitment to promoting renewable energy, including rooftop solar plants. Policies such as net metering, feed-in tariffs, and renewable purchase obligations have been implemented to incentivize solar energy adoption and facilitate grid integration. However, there is a need for continuous policy updates, streamlined administrative procedures, and effective enforcement to enhance the regulatory framework for solar roof plant implementation. The thesis has also emphasized the importance of stakeholder engagement in promoting solar roof plant implementation. Interviews, focus group discussions, and workshops have provided valuable insights into stakeholder perspectives, including government officials, utility companies, local communities, and relevant organizations. Stakeholder engagement activities have helped identify barriers, address concerns, and foster collaboration among different stakeholders, thereby facilitating the successful implementation of solar roof plants. The environmental benefits of solar roof plants cannot be overlooked. The environmental impact assessment has demonstrated that solar roof plants contribute to reducing carbon emissions, air pollution, and dependence on fossil fuels. Implementing solar roof plants aligns with sustainable development goals, promotes clean and renewable energy, and supports climate change mitigation efforts at the local and global levels. However, certain challenges need to be addressed to realize the full potential of solar roof plants in Gwalior. These challenges include limited awareness and knowledge among stakeholders, financial constraints, technological barriers, and the need for skilled manpower. Overcoming these challenges requires coordinated efforts from government agencies, private sector entities, educational institutions, and civil society organizations. In conclusion, solar roof plant implementation in Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, presents a viable solution for sustainable energy generation. The research has demonstrated that solar roof plants have the technical feasibility, economic viability, and policy support necessary for successful implementation. By harnessing the abundant solar energy resources, Gwalior can reduce its carbon footprint, improve energy security, and contribute to a greener and more sustainable future. To realize the full potential of solar roof plants, it is essential to continue research and innovation in solar PV technology, strengthen policy frameworks, enhance financial mechanisms, and promote awareness and capacity building among stakeholders. By doing so, Gwalior can become a model for sustainable energy generation through the widespread implementation of solar roof plants, paving the way for a cleaner and more sustainable energy future.
 Felix Pag ? , Mateo Jesper , Oleg Kusyy , Klaus Vajen , Ulrike Jordan “Solar fractions of SHIP plants considering the availability of roof area based on OpenStreetMap data” The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. Available online 22 June 2022/ 2667-1131/©2022  Giovan Battista Cavadini a,b, Lauren M. Cook”Green and cool roof choices integrated into rooftop solar energy modelling” 0306-2619/© 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.  Saleh Kaji Esfahani a , Ali Karrech b , ? , Robert Cameron “Optimizing the solar energy capture of residential roof design in the southern hemisphere through Evolutionary Algorithm” Available online 23 September 2020 2666-1233/Copyright © 2020 Southwest Jiatong University. Publishing services by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of KeAi Communication Co. Ltd.  Abraham Noah Wu, Filip Biljecki “Roofpedia: Automatic mapping of green and solar roofs for an open roofscape registry and evaluation of urban sustainability” Available online 23 June 2021/0169-2046/© 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.  Bansal, R.C., Ahmed, F., 2021. Handbook of Renewable Energy Technology and Systems. World Scientific Publisher, UK.  Barua, A., Jain, A.K., Mishra, P.K., Singh, D., 2021. Design of grid connected microgrid with solar photovoltaic module. Mater. Today Proc. 47, 6971–6975. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2021.05.228.  Behura, A.K., Kumar, A., Rajak, D.K., 2021. Towards better performances for a novel rooftop solar PV system. Sol. Energy 216, 518–529. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.solener.2021.01.045.  Chen, N., Zhang, X., Bai, Y., Zhang, H., 2012. Environmental friendly PV power plant. Energy Procedia 16, 32–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2012.01. 007.  Colak, H.E., Memisoglu, T., Gercek, Y., 2020. Optimal site selection for solar photovoltaic (PV) power plants using GIS and AHP: A case study of Malatya Province, Turkey. Renew. Energy 149, 565–576. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. renene.2019.12.078.  Daro?, M., Wilk, M., 2021. Management of energy sources and the development potential in the energy production sector—A comparison of EU countries. Energies 14 (3), 685. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/en14030685.  Das, B.K., Alotaibi, M.A., Das, P., Islam, M.S., Das, S.K., Hossain, M.A., 2021. Feasibility and techno-economic analysis of stand-alone and grid-connected PV/Wind/Diesel/Batt hybrid energy system: A case study. Energy Strategy Rev. 37, 100673. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.esr.2021.100673.  Elsheikh, A.H., Abd Elaziz, M., 2019. Review on applications of particle swarm optimization in solar energy systems. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 16 (2), 1159–1170. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13762-018-1970-x.  Elsheikh, A.H., Sharshir, S.W., Abd Elaziz, M., Kabeel, A.E., Guilan, W., Haiou, Z., 2019. Modeling of solar energy systems using artificial neural network: A comprehensive review. Sol. Energy 180, 622–639. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ j.solener.2019.01.037.  Fthenakis, V., Raugei, M., 2017. Environmental Life-Cycle Assessment of Photovoltaic Systems. The Performance of Photovoltaic (PV) Systems Woodhead Publishing, pp. 209–232.
Copyright © 2023 Punit Kumar Singh, Amit Agrawal. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.